MIM22 Final

  1. How did the content of Shlomo Artzi’s songs change in the second phase of his
    His lyrics became more confessional, intimate, and semibiographical
  2. What were the two periods in Shlomo Artzi’s career and what characterized
    each one of them?
    • Before 1978 – his music was in the spirit of the Israeli Song Festival and SLI
    • After 1978 – became more Rock
  3. What was paradoxical about Aviv Geffen?
    • Presented a nihilistic punk rock image yet his music was far removed from the
    • alternative rock scene
  4. What characterized the second period in Mashina’s career?
    Between 1990-95 the band moved towards rock
  5. What are the musical characteristics of Israeli ethnic rock?
    • Rock (mode of vocal delivery, electric guitars) with elements of Mediterranean
    • and Middle Eastern music (modal, ornaments, rhythmic patterns, instruments or
    • electronic imitation of these instruments)
  6. What is the difference between ethnic rock and SLI?
    • Ethnic rock embodies a return to the idea of East-West fusion which was the ideal
    • of SLI composers, yet it is an expression of Israeliness rather than nationalistic
    • ideology
  7. What was the subject matter of the album “Ashes and dust” by Yehuda
    • Together with Yaacov Gilad who wrote the lyrics for the songs, the album was
    • about their experiences growing up in Israel in the 1960s as sons of Holocaust
    • survivors.
  8. What is the duality that exists in Teapacks?
    • The band simultaneously plays the role of both an outsider and an insider by
    • mixing rock, which has become Israeliness’ main mode of expression, and
    • Mizrahiyut
  9. What were the influences in the 6 albums released by Teapacks between 1992
    and 1999?
    • Rock, electro-dance, Musiqa Mizrahit, Moroccan-Jewish songs, and early Israeli
    • rock (mainly the band Kaveret).
  10. What styles does Musiqa Mizrahit incorporate in it?
    • Different ethnic styles of music (traditional Jewish Moroccan, Jewish Yemenite,
    • Jewish Persian, Greek, Turkish, and Arab) with Western popular forms
  11. Eastern Jewish music could be heard regularly on Israeli radio in the 1950s and 1960s
  12. Why was Musiqa Mizrahit considered non-Israeli until the mid-1980?
    Because it represents the Middle-Eastern Jews – the “Other”
  13. How was Musiqa Mizrahit disseminated initially and why?
    • It was printed on cassettes because they were suitable for cheap mass production
    • and dissemination
  14. How was Musiqa Mizrahit instrumental for Mizrahi Jews?
    • Musiqa Mizrahit helped defining identities and social boundaries and it was one
    • of the means of the Mizrahi Jews in their struggle into society
  15. Give an example of a link between Musiqa Mizrahit and traditional music of
    Mizrahi Jews.
    • Songs from the ‘Diwan’ (the Yemenite Jewish religious poetry) became popular
    • Mizrahi songs
  16. Why was Musiqa Mizrahit absent from the radio and records?
    Why was Musiqa Mizrahit absent from the radio and records?
    • a) Cultural power – it resembled Arab popular music
    • b) Musiqa Mizrahit musicians did not think in terms of commodifying it, but
    • rather it was perceived as live music
  17. What were the factors in the successful marketing of Musiqa Mizrahit to its
    • a) The cassette technology
    • b) The added social dimension of discrimination against Musiqa Mizrahit
    • musicians, a fact which brought it to the forefront of the debate about
    • Israeliness
  18. How did ethnic rock affect Musiqa Mizrahit and vice versa?
    • Ethnic rock helped the acceptance of Musiqa Mizrahit as an authentic type of Israeli music and therefore as an alternative expression of Israeliness. Stylistic
    • elements of Musiqa Mizrahit penetrated ethnic rock to form a hybrid style
  19. Where was Musiqa Mizrahit initially programmed on radio? What was the term
    used by Mizrahi musicians to describe those programs?
    • Muziqa Mizrahit was heard on the radio on special programs (“ghettos” as
    • referred by Muziqa Mizrahit musicians)
  20. The dominant feature in the sound of Greek music comes from the ______
  21. What is the musical connection between Greek music and Musiqa Mizrahit?
    The “Greek sound” (the electric guitars) is prominent in Musiqa Mizrahit
  22. Musiqa Mizrahit places more emphasis on the lyrics than the music.
  23. Who were the singers who dominated Musiqa Mizrahit and what was the
    reason for that?
    • As Musiqa Mizrahit developed in the neighborhoods in south Tel Aviv, which
    • were mostly populated by Yemenite Jews, Yemenite singers have dominated that style
  24. How was the repertory of Zohar Argov different from that of other Musiqa
    Mizrahit singers?
    • In contrast to mainstream Musiqa Mizrahit, his repertory was eclectic and
    • included mainstream songs (Jerusalem of gold) and Hebrew translations of
    • European ballads
  25. What are Avihu Medina’s main arguments against discrimination?
    • a) There is discrimination against Musiqa Mizrahit by music editors in radio and
    • television stations (the label “Musiqa Mizrahit was invented by the media as
    • part of its campaign of discrimination)
    • b) It is propelled by the outdated notion that Israeliness equals Westernness.
    • c) Mizrahi Jews have been silent because they come from totalitarian regimes.
    • d) As part of the Middle East, Israel should adopt an orientalized culture.
  26. What kind of musical techniques did Teapacks incorporate in their songs?
    • Tea-Packs incorporated Eastern music techniques, such as singing and playing in
    • unison for extended sections of a song, heterophony (simultaneous variation of a
    • single melody), vocal and instrumental improvisations in fluctuating rhythm,
    • quotations of Moroccan songs, and the use of microtones and Arab rhythmic
    • patterns
  27. What does the song “Hanale hitbalbela” exemplify?
    • The eclecticism of Musiqa Mizrahit (the tune is a Klezmer folk tune from Eastern
    • Europe)
  28. How was Haim Moshe’s road to mainstream achieved?
    • a) Performed in mainstream venues
    • b) Appeared regularly on the media
    • c) Broke off his connections with those who made him an ethnic singer
    • d) Introduced non-Mizrahi styles into his repertory
    • e) Asked mainstream Ashkenazi composers to write songs for him
    • f) Moved away from the orchestration/sound associated with Musiqa Mizrahit
  29. How is Musiqa Mizrahit different from the traditional music of Mizrahi Jews in
    terms of acceptance? (p.234)
    • Musiqa Mizrahit became “Israeli”, while traditional music of Mizrahi Jews
    • was “put in a museum”, labeled “ethnic music”, or rejected
  30. What were the stigmas attached to Musiqa Mizrahit fans by Middle-class
    Ashkenazim? (p.217)
    Close-knit families, sports funs, right-wing populism, and religious observance
  31. What was the criticism on Eyal Golan after the success of his 1998 album
    “Soldier of Love”?
    • His appropriation by Rock musicians who want to capitalize on the success of
    • underprivileged Mizrahi singers
  32. What was the criticism against the recognition of Musiqa Mizrahit by the
    • Recognition by the media threatens the authenticity of Musiqa Mizrahit. Musiqa
    • Mizrahit should remain as an opposition to the dominant western culture
  33. What is the cultural dilemma of Mizrahiyut?
    • Whether to cross the lines to mainstream society or keep its resisting and
    • subverting potential against marginalization and inferiority (in music that means
    • pay the price of dilution of the authentic sound of Musiqa Mizrahit, or keep the
    • authentic sound and pay the price of remaining marginal and labeled inferior and
    • “non-Israeli”)
  34. According to the authors, why is it impossible to create an all-Israeli popular
    • a) Israeli society is an aggregate of people from different cultural backgrounds.
    • b) The intensification of globalization occurred almost precisely when national
    • culture was starting.
  35. According to the authors, what is the problem with Israeli music that is an East-
    West fusion?
    • They seem forced or fabricated. They cannot express all the cultural and musical
    • contexts in Israel and thus some might not find their own sense of identity in such
    • fusions. In many cases, the authenticity of the styles in such fusions is diluted in
    • order to enable such a mix
  36. Which wave of music became popular in Israel in the 1960s?
    Greek Music
  37. Where was Musiqa Mizrahit sold?
    Tel Aviv’s central bus station
  38. What styles does Musiqa Mizrahit combine?
    • Different ethnic styles of music (traditional Jewish Moroccan, Jewish Yemenite,
    • Jewish Persian, Greek, Turkish, and Arab) with Western popular forms
  39. What was the derogatory term for Musiqa Mizrahit musicians?
    “Cassette singers”
  40. What were the new labels for Musiqa Mizrahit?
    “Israeli Mediterranean Music” and “Israeli Eastern Music”
  41. Where was Eastern music heard live in the 1960s? why?
    • Weddings and parties, since there were no records of this music, nor was it
    • broadcast on the radio
  42. Which invention allowed cheap production and dissemination of Musiqa
    The cassette
  43. What did SLI composers try to incorporate in their music, similar to Israeli
    Ethnic Rock composers?
    The sound of the Orient
  44. Which style of music was heard live in cafés in Ramat-Gan in the 1950s?
    “Chalgi Baghdad”
  45. What is “Laika”?
    Hybrid of nightclub music styles from Athens and Thessaloniki
  46. What is “Silsulim”?
    Vocal shaking at the end of phrases
  47. What is “Bouzouki”?
    Greek instrument with 4 double strings
  48. Which Greek singer was a star in nightclubs in Israel in the 1960s?
    Aris San
  49. What does “Ethnic Rock” mix in addition to Middle Eastern music?
    Reggae , Rai, and African Pop and Rock
  50. What was the main nightclub in Jaffa in the 1960s for Greek music?
  51. Why was “Greek Music” popular among Mizrahi Jews?
    It is similar in sound and affective appeal to Arab music
  52. What is “static harmony”?
    Limited number of chords that repeat
  53. Who has dominated the field of Musiqa Mizrahit? Why?
    Yemenite singers, because Musiqa Mizrahit was invented by them
  54. What was the influence of the electric-guitar-sound in Greek music, on Musiqa
    Its sound became prominent in Musiqa Mizrahit
  55. What was the influence of the European popular ballad on Musiqa Mizrahit?
    • Its format (verses and chorus) is combined in Musiqa Mizrahit together with
    • traditional and popular styles of Eastern Jews
  56. What was the influence of Anglo-American pop-rock on Musiqa Mizrahit?
    Amplified sound and the perception of Musiqa Mizrahit as a popular genre
  57. What was the alternative to live performances for Mizrahi Jews in the 1950s and
    Arab radio stations
  58. Where did Musiqa Mizrahit start?
    The neighborhoods in south Tel Aviv
  59. Which band was one of the first bands of Musiqa Mizrahit?
    “Tslile Ha’ud”
  60. Which festival started in 1971 as a kind of affirmative action?
    The “Oriental Song Festival”
  61. What are “Maqamat”?
    Arab musical scales
  62. What closed the gap between Musiqa Mizrahit and mainstream pop?
    CDs and digital recording
  63. Which band blurred the difference between Musiqa Mizrahit and Ethnic Rock?
  64. What was Shlomo Artzi’s conviction regarding his early music?
    That his early music was ridiculous and lacked authenticity and artistry
  65. The band ‘Mashina’ started as a ______band in 1985, influenced by the British
    band ________.
    Ska, Maddness
  66. The lyrics in ‘Musiqa Mizrahit’ songs are mostly political
  67. List the musical characteristics of ‘Musiqa Mizrahit’.
    • a) Short instrumental intro like improvised, free-flowing styles in Arab and
    • Turkish music
    • b) “Silsulim” – vocal shaking at the end of phrases
    • c) Static harmony
    • d) Looped rhythmic pattern
    • e) Distinctive sound of the electric guitars, and the use or imitation of middle
    • Eastern instruments
    • f) Use of Maqamat
    • g) Nasal voice quality of the singer
  68. What does an Oud look like?
    A guitar with a short neck
  69. What does a bouzouki look like?
    a guitar with a long neck and fat base
  70. What was new about the marketing of Israeli rock bands in the beginning of the 1980s?
    • a) The clothes, fashion
    • b) Public image
    • c) Album cover
    • d) Media coverage
  71. How did the status of rock in Israel change in the 1980s?
    It gained legitimacy – rock became the language of popular music in Israel
  72. What did producer Louis Lahav bring to Israeli rock in terms of production?
    • a) Brought American production standards to Israel
    • b) Album should have a concept
    • c) The producer as an axis that connects everything
  73. Why was Tel Aviv referred to as a “bubble” in the beginning of the 1980s?
    There was a sub-culture and underground scene there that was separated from the rest of the country and could survive only there.
Card Set
MIM22 Final
Final for modern israeli music test