1. Cranium is made up of
    Neurocranium and Viscerocranium
  2. Neurocranium
    • Bony case surrounding the brain and its coverings (calvaria and cranial base)
    • - temporal, parietal, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital
  3. Viscerocranium
    • Bones of the face associated with the pharyngeal arches
    • - maxilla, inferior nasal concha, zygomatic, palatine, nasal, lacrimal, ethmoid, vomer
  4. Mandible
    • Articulates with temporal bone at temporomandibular joint
    • - Processes: alveloar (houses teeth), coronoid (muscle insertion), condylar (supports mandibular condyle)
  5. Bones of the orbit
    Frontal, maxilla, zygomatic, sphenoid, ethmoid, lacrimal, palatine
  6. Apertures within the orbit
    Superior orbital fissure, inferior orbital fissure, optic foramen, opening of nasolacrimal canal
  7. Piriform aperture
    • External opening of nasal cavities
    • - Nasal bone (superiorly)
    • - Maxilla (everywhere else)
    • - Septum- vomer (inferiorly), perpendicular plate of ethmoid (superiorly)
    • - Nasal conchae- curved bony plates on wall to increase surface area for mucosa; superior (ethmoid), middle (ethmoid), inferior (separate)
  8. Temporal fossa
    depression on side of braincase that accommodates the temporalis muscle
  9. Temporal lines
    Ridges of muscle attachment for temporalis muscle and temporal fascia
  10. Zygomatic arch
    • Arch of bone made up of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone
    • - attachment for masseter muscle and temporal fascia
  11. Anterior cranial fossa
    • Supports frontal lobes and olfactory bulbs, forms root of orbit
    • - back edge is sphenoidal crest
  12. Middle cranial fossa
    • Supports temporal bones laterally
    • - medial part is called sella turcica, surrounded by anterior and posterior clinoid processes, pit at center (hyposphyseal fossa) supports pituitary gland
  13. Posterior cranial fossa
    • Supports cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
    • - Starts at petrous ridge
  14. Sagittal suture
    • On midline
    • - Premature closure results in a long and narrow skull- scaphocephaly
  15. Coronal suture
    • In frontal plane
    • - Premature closure results in short skull- brachycephaly
  16. Lamboid suture
    • curves laterally and ventrally from posterior end of sagittal suture
    • - between occipital and parital bones
  17. Squamosal suture
    Between temporal and parietal bone
  18. Metopic suture
    on midline, between left and right frontal bone
  19. Pterion
    • Region on side of cranium where parietal, frontal, sphenoid, and temporal bones meet
    • - vulnerable to injury becasue middle meningeal artery runs inside the cranium here
  20. Bregma
    Where coronal suture meets sagittal suture- anterior fontanelle
  21. Lambda
    Where lambdoid suture meets sagittal suture- posterior fontanelle
  22. Glabella
    Area between the eyebrows- vertical creases
  23. Eyelids
    • Superior and inferior palpebrae
    • - slit- palpebral fissure
    • - angles- medial and lateral canthi
  24. Nasal cartilages
    septal, lateral, alar
  25. Red zone of lips
  26. Philtrum
    groove running from nasal septum to upper lip
  27. Orbilularis oculi
    • Orbital group
    • - orbital- peripheral portion arising from orbital margin and medial palpebral ligament
    • - palpebral- from medial palpebral ligament through both lids to insert on lateral palpebral raphe
    • - lacrimal- courses posterior to lacrimal sac, aids in tear collection
  28. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
    • Nasal group
    • - from maxilla to side of nose and insert on skin of upper lip
    • - elevates upper lip and dilates the nostril
  29. Levator labii superioris
    • Oral group
    • - arises from maxilla at inferior margin of orbit, deep to obicularis oculi and courses inferiorly to insert on the lateral half of the upper lip
    • - elevates the upper lip
  30. Zygomaticus minor
    • Oral group
    • - arises from zygomatic bone in front of zygomaticus major and passes obliquely downward to insert on lateral part of upper lip
    • - elevates upper lip
  31. Zygomaticus major
    • Oral group
    • - arises from zygomatic bone and passes obliquely downward to insert at corner of mouth
    • - pulls mouth upward and outward, as in smiling and laughing
  32. Levator anguli oris
    • Oral group
    • - arises from maxilla and passes downward and laterally to insert on the corner of the mouth
    • - lies deep to levator labii superioris
    • - elevates the corner of the mouth
  33. Risorius
    • Oral group
    • - arises from the parotid fascia and buccal skin and inserts onto the corner of the mouth
    • - widens the mouth
  34. Depressor anguli oris
    • Oral group
    • - arises from mandible and fibers pass upwards to insert on angle of mouth
    • - triangular in shape- fibers converge on mouth
    • - depresses the corner of the mouth- grief
  35. Depressor labii inferioris
    • Oral group
    • - arises from mandible and the fibers pass upward and medially to insert on the lower lip
    • - medial fibers cross
    • - depresses lower lip and draws it laterally
  36. Mentalis
    • Oral group
    • - arises from incisive fossa of the mandible and inserts into skin of the chin
    • - rasies and protrudes the lower lip
  37. Orbicularis oris
    • Oral group
    • - formed by interlacing fibers of other muscles as well as buccinator
    • - also from intrinsic fibers within the substance of the lips
    • - fibers encircle the oral orifice
    • - closure, pursing, and protrusion of the lips
  38. Buccinator
    • Oral group
    • - arises from pterygomandibular raphe but also from maxilla and mandible and its fibers pass forward to insert onto mouth
    • - forms substance of cheek
    • - aids in mastication, whistling, and blowing
    • - pierced by parotid duct
  39. Auricular muscles
    around ears, rudimentary
  40. Platysma
    • arises from the superficial fascia of skin of thorax and courses upward through the neck to insert onto lower part of face
    • - wrinkles skin of neck and face, also active in sudden, deep inspiration
  41. Occipitofrontalis
    • occipitalis- arises from acciptal bone and inserts into the epicranial aponeurosis
    • --pulls scalp posteriorily and wrinkles posterior scalp
    • frontalis- arises from epicranial aponeurosis and inserts into skin over forehead
    • --wrinkles skin over forehead
  42. Facial nerve
    • emerges from stylomastiod foramen, pierces the parotid gland and emerges as 5 branches which supply the facial muscles
    • - bell's palsy
  43. Trigeminal nerve
    • cutaneous supply of face
    • - ophthalmic division
    • - maxillary division
    • - mandibular division
  44. CN V1
    • sensory to forehead, upper eyelid, and much of nose
    • - supraorbital- emerges through supraorbital foramen (forehead and upper lid)
    • - supratrochlear- emerges from upper medial angle of eye (medial eye and forehead)
  45. CN V2
    • sensory to lower eyelid, prominence of cheek, ala of nose, part of temple, and upper lip
    • - infraorbital- emerges though infraorbital foramen
  46. CN V3
    • sensory to skin over mandible, lower lip, fleshy part of cheek, part of auricle, part of temple
    • - motor branches to mucles of mastication
    • - mental- emerges via mental foramen (mandible, lower lip)
    • - buccal- emerges exteral to buccinator (cheek skin and mucus membrane)
    • - auriculotemporal- course with superficial temporal vessels (face and scalp in temporal region)
Card Set
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