1. specialized for electrical signaling over long distances
    nerve cells/neurons
  2. not capable of electrical signaling; in the CNS,
    consist mostly of neuroglial cells
    supporting cells
  3. interconnect nerve cells to form circuits
  4. portion of the nerve cell specialized for signal conduction to the next site of synaptic interaction, where input info is integrated and read out, travels different distances depending on the type of neuron and size of the species
  5. axonal mechanism that carries signals over long
    distances, self-regenerating wave of electrical activity that propagates from
    its point of initiation to the terminus of the axon
    action potential
  6. process by which info encoded by action potentials
    is passed on @ synaptic contacts to the next cell in the pathway
    synaptic transmission
  7. the most abundant type of synapse
    chemical synapse
  8. secretory organelles in the presynaptic terminal of
    chemical synapses; release neurotransmitters that bind to neurotransmitter
    synaptic vesicles
  9. Do not participate directly in synaptic interactions like nerve cells, are more numerous than nerve cells, smaller than nerve cells, do not have axons or dendrites

    Maintain the ionic setting of nerve cells

    Modulate the rate of nerve signal propagation

    Modulate synaptic action

    Aid in recovery from neural injury
    Neuroglial cells
  10. 3 types of glial cells
    • Astrocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Microglial cells
  11. restricted to the brain and spinal cord, starlike
    appearance, maintain an appropriate chemical environment for neuronal signaling
  12. lay down myelin (lipid-rich wrapping) around some axons
  13. smaller cells derived from hematopoietic stem
    cells, scavenger cells that remove cellular debris from sites of injury or normal cell turnover
    microglial cells
  14. dense tangle of dendrites, axons terminals, and glial cell processes
    the region where most synaptic connectivity occurs
  15. Basic constituents of all neural circuits
    • Afferent neurons
    • Efferent neurons
    • Interneurons
  16. nerve cells that carry info toward the CNS
    afferent neurons
  17. nerve cells that carry info away from the brain or
    spinal cord
    efferent neurons
  18. nerve cells that only participate in the local
    aspects of a circuit
  19. 3 types of neural systems
    • sensory
    • motor
    • associational
  20. neural systems like vision or hearing that acquire and
    process info from the environment
    sensory systems
  21. neural systems that allow the organism to respond
    to such info by generating movements
    motor systems
  22. cells and circuits that lie between these well defined input and output systems, carry out complex, poorly characterized brain fxs
    associational systems
  23. brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system
  24. types of nerve cell configuration (2)
    • nuclei
    • cortex
  25. any accumulation of cell bodies and neuropil in the
    brain and spinal cord
    gray matter
  26. axon tracts
    white matter
  27. sensory neurons, which link sensory receptors with
    processing circuits in the CNS
    peripheral nervous system
  28. local accumulations of nerve cell bodies
  29. nerve cells send axons to the periphery that end in
    specialized receptors
    sensory ganglia
  30. bundles of axons
  31. form synapses with peripheral motor neurons that
    lie in the autonomic ganglia (control
    involuntary behavior)
    preganglionic visceral motor neurons
  32. made up of small ganglia scattered throughout the
    wall of the gut
    enteric system
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