The structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior.
The shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture.
The relatively stable capabilities people have to perform a particular range of different but related activities
What does CANOE stand for?
Dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering
Warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous
Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality.
Talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant
Prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality
Tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivity
Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous.
Synonymous with negative affectivity —a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance
Neuroticism is also strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment.
Openness to experience
Curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated
Openness to experience is also more likely to be valuable in jobs that require high levels of creativity, defined as the capacity to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions.
Locus of control
Which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment.
Capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving.
To various capabilities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication.
Oral comprehension is the ability to understand spoken words and sentences.
Written comprehension is the ability to understand written words and sentences.
Oral expression refers to the ability to communicate ideas by speaking
Written expression refers to the ability to communicate ideas in writing.
Two types of mathematical capabilities.
Number facility is the capability to do simple math operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing).
Mathematical reasoning refers to the ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers.
A diverse set of abilities associated with sensing and solving problems using insight, rules, and logic.
Problem sensitivity is the ability to sense that there’s a problem or likely will be one.
Deductive reasoning refers to the use of general rules to solve problems.
Inductive reasoning refers to the ability to consider several specific pieces of information and then reach a more general conclusion regarding how those pieces are related.
Originality refers to the ability to develop clever and novel ways to solve problems.
Spatial orientation refers to having a good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment.
Visualization is the ability to imagine how separate things will look if they were put together in a particular way.
Being able to perceive, understand, and recall patterns of information.
Speed and flexibility of closure refers to being able to pick out a pattern of information quickly in the presence of distracting information, even without all the information present.
Perceptual speed refers to being able to examine and compare numbers, letters, and objects quickly.
Consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
Five Team Types
Designed to be relatively permanent.
Purpose is to produce goods or provide services, and they generally require a full-time commitment from their members.
Designed to be relatively permanent.
Responsible for coordinating the activities of organizational subunits—typically departments or functional areas—to help the organization achieve its long-term goals.
Composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run “parallel” to the organization’s production process.
Formed to take on “one-time” tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and expertise.
Perform tasks that are normally limited in duration. However, those tasks are quite complex and take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or of a highly challenging nature.
Four stages of team development
Try to understand the boundaries in the team and get a feel for what is expected of them.
Remain committed to ideas, triggers conflict that affects some relationships and harms the team’s progress
Realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals
Members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals
Three types of roles
Team task roles
Team building roles
Team task roles
Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks
Team building roles
Behaviors that influence the quality of the team’s social climate
Behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team
Refers the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
Types of task interdependence
Requires lowest degree of required coordination, members complete their work assignments independently, and then this work is simply “piled up” to represent the group’s output
Requires different tasks to be done in a prescribed order, interact to carry out their work, the interaction only occurs between members who perform tasks that are next to each other in the sequence.
Requires members are specialized to perform specific tasks. However, instead of a strict sequence of activities, members interact with a subset of other members to complete the team’s work.
Requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members. Each member has a great deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishing the team’s work
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Can be defined as the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
Three Types of Organizational Power
Derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as “formal authority.”
Exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants.
Exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization
Two Types of Personal Power
Is derived from a person’s expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend
Exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person.
Eight types of influence tactics
The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
A tactic designed to appeal to the target’s values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction
Occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
Attempting to make it easier for the target to complete the request
The use of favors, complements, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
When the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
Used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request
When the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally
The use of coercive power through threats and demands
Occurs when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target