1. thrombin is and ensime that will convert fibrinogen (water) into fibrin (insoluble) mesh
  2. coagulation, conversion of prothrombin to thrombin via prothrombin activator
  3. platelets
    first line of defense
  4. blood contains hemoglobin
  5. hematopoiesis
    production of blood
  6. Blood functions
    • protects
    • distrubutes
    • regulation
  7. compnents of blood
    • plasma
    • formed elements (red blood cells) leolights, platelets
  8. cardioaccelatory - symp
    cardioINhibitory - para
  9. release of neuro epriehn onto heart musicle will caused increased Ca2 and eergy into cell allowing for more cross bridge formation

    not only NE does this must strongest
  10. ANS increases contracttility
  11. Frank Starlin law of the heart
    whatever the heart recieves it will send back out
  12. Cardiac output is based on
    • heart rate and stroke volume
    • full and empty ventrical
  13. the cardiac output is the flow in
    1 min
  14. ventricular filling
    atrial pressure rises due to P waves create full ventricles
  15. A contraction event (of either the atria or ventricles) is referred to as
  16. Why don't you see the arterial muscle relaxing and refilling, or polarixing on an EKG
    because the action potential due to calcium makes it a little longer and complex during the QRS mode while it goes through the pretingi fibers the bundles ect. and it allows for it to refill to 70%
  17. T wave
    • The
    • T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles. Electrical
    • activity generated by the repolarization of the atria is concealed by
    • the QRS complex.
  18. QRS wave
    • contraction of the ventricular, the AVnode bundles and Purkinje fibers allow for complete V contraction
    • will be slightly behind atrial
  19. P wave
    • When the heart fills up to 100% blood
    • when the atria muscle contracts
  20. CAlcium
    causes the length and the plateau

    Slow and fast calcium channels
  21. causes the potental to rise quickly
  22. AP is longer and sustained in cardiac muscle
  23. What items are nessesary for contraction?
    • Ca2
    • ATP
    • Na
    • K filiments
  24. Where is the sinotricular node located?
    the right atrium
  25. The Sinoatriular node (pacemaker)
    is what starts off the heart beat.
  26. through the vena cavy the blood fills the right atrium, when it is full it contracts and then goe to the right ventricle . the trycusic valve closes after right v the pulmnary

    aorta valve,

    In the right
  27. the phase of diastole
    the ventrials relax, and the heart fills with blood
  28. Contaction is also known as
  29. the cardiac muscle needs electrical _____ for contraction to occure
    de polizeration
  30. Diffrences between cardiac muscles and skelatal
    means of stimulation, CArdiac cells are self excitable allows for direct stimulation of the heart muscle (does not need nerve endings)

    the tissue contracts as a whole

    the lenth of the action potential is much longer
  31. Valves are oppen _______ when blood arrives and are ________ by the strength of the contaction from the perspective chamber
    passively, closed
  32. Chlorde tendinae conects to the papillary muscle which is an exention of the
  33. Valves are connected by
    Chlorde tendinae and papillary muscle
  34. Inner heart muscle
  35. Pulmonary
    Brings de ox blood to the lungs
  36. Systomatic circulation
    oxygenated to the tissues then de ox back
  37. Left atrium -
    Left ventricle
    Right atrium
    Right V
    • pulmonary veins (O)
    • Aorta (O)
    • Vena cava
    • pulmonary artery
  38. Arteries
    Away from heart
  39. veins
    blood to heart
  40. Valves are important to
    Prevent backflow into the chamber
  41. Pulmonary circulation
    the left ventrical contracts pushing red blood cells into the aorta. From here the blood is pumped into smaller arteries until it reaches a capilarry (the junction between veins and arteries) here oxygen is detached from the red blood cells and goes across the artery wall into body tissue. Now that it is de-oxiginated it is pumped into the right ventricle then through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to pick up oxygen. reenters the left atrium to the left ventrical and begins again
  42. the atria and the ventricles are ____ left and right. therefore there are ___ chambers. Each chamber is associated with _____ vessels

    • 4
    • 4
  43. the 2 atera ____ blood and ventricles ______ blood
    • recieve
    • pump out
  44. Heart location
    thoratic cavity, anterior to the vertebral column
  45. Blood
    the transport mechanism that the heart will use to pump nutrients gases and ect.
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