1. what is science
    the process of gaining knowledge and understanding about the natural world
  2. What is the foundational assumption of science
    forces and phenomena existing within the universe can be understood by applying a process of inquiry-the scientific method
  3. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
  4. Understand what a binding constant (Kd) is and basic equation relating it to theta
    • the lower the Kd the higher the affinity of the ligand for the protein
    • theta=binding sites ocp./total binding sites=[L]/[L]+Kd
  5. Michaelis-Menton Equation
    V= Vmax[S]/Km+[S]
  6. What is Km
    • determines the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate
    • lower Km higher affinity
  7. Vmax
    max rate of turnover
  8. Kcat
    • The turnover number – the number of substrate molecule each enzyme site converts to product per unit time
    • Vmax/[Enzyme]
  9. Effect of competitor inhibitor on enzyme kinetics
    • Vo=Vmax[S]/Kmα+[S]
    • inhibitor is mutually exclusive w/ S
    • prevents binding S and vice versa
  10. Uncompetitive inhibitor  and mixed inhibitor
    • uncomp-binds to the ES complex
    • mixed- binds to both ES complex and E at a site distinct from that where S binds
  11. Glycogen structure and consequences
    • Glc(α1-->4)Glc
    • granules
    • insoluble
    • branching (α1--->6)
  12. Starch Structure consequences
    • CHO storage in plants
    • Glucose
    • Amylose: (α1--->4), no branching
    • Amylopectin:(α1--->4), branching
    • helix
  13. Cellulose structure and consequences
    • fibrous structure in plants
    • Glc(β1--->4)Glc
    • linear
    • Not Branched
  14. DNA sequenced by the Sanger dideoxy method
    • 3' template strand
    • 5' primer + dNTPs + ddNTPs
    • primer strand can add either d or ddNTPs
    • generates fragments
    • run on gel that separate by 1 nucleotide
    • read from bottom top
  15. relationship between UW, Vitamin D, and rickets
    • Rickets is caused by Vitamin D deficiency
    • Vitamin D content of food increases after exposure to UV light
    • discovered at UW
  16. Differences in rates of diffusion of lipids
    • lateral diffusion of lipids is fast
    • transverse diffusion slow
  17. Identify which amino acids are likely to reside in a membrane
    glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine,tryptophan
  18. passive facilitated diffusion
    • passive transporters
    • ex: glucose permease
    • transporter action is enzyme-like
  19. primary active transport
    ATP- driven active transport
  20. secondary active transport
    gradient driven
  21. Relation ship ΔG and ΔG'
    ΔG= ΔG'o + RTln[D][C]/[A][B]
  22. relationship between ΔG'o and Keq
    ΔG'o=-RTlnKeq @ equilibirum
  23. difference between kinetics and thermodynamics
    • thermo-where the eq point
    • kinetics-how fast is the eq point approached
  24. 7 common reactions in biochemistry
    • Nucleophilic Substitution 
    • Aldol Codensation
    • Claisen Condensation
    • Decarboxylation of b-keto acids
    • rearrangements or isomerizations
    • elimination
    • free radical reactions
  25. result of phosphorylation
    ADP and p-something
  26. result of pyrophosphorylation
    something-2Pi + AMP
  27. result of adenylation
    something-AMP + 2 Pi
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