1. Bilateral Symmetry
    the property of being divisible into symmetrical halves on either side of a unique plane
  2. Cephalization
    • def: formation of a head
    • free-living, moving animals
    • directionality of movement 
    • head contacts the environment first
    • brain formation to process new info
    • location of the mouth
  3. Protostome
    • blastopore becomes the mouth such as an annelid, mollusk, or arthropod
    • became the great radiation of invertebrates
    • greatest number of species
    • nervous system is ventrally located
  4. Deuterostome
    • blastopore becomes the anus, then a mouth is formed
    • became the invertebrate line that led to vertebrates
    • largest in size
    • nervous system is dorsally located
  5. Blastopore
    the opening of the central cavity of an embryo in the early stage of development
  6. Ventral
    of, on, or relating to the underside of an animal or plant; abdominal
  7. Dorsal
    of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ
  8. Symbiosis
    interaction of 2 different species
  9. Mutualism
    both organisms benefit
  10. Commensalism
    one organism benefits, the other is unaffected
  11. Parasitism
    one organism benefits, the other is harmed
  12. Endoparasitic
    of or relating to parasites that live in the internal organs of animals
  13. Ectoparasitic
    any external parasitic organism ex: fleas, leeches, etc
  14. Ectoderm
    the outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which include the epidermis and nerve tissue
  15. Hermaphrodism
    congenital condition in which external genitalia and internal sex organs have both male and female characteristics
  16. Intermediate host
    an organism that supports the immature or nonreproductive forms of a parasite
  17. Definitive host
    an organism that supports the adult or sexually reproductive form of a parasite
  18. Cercaria
    a free-swimming larval stage in which a parasitic fluke passes from an intermediate host (typically a snail) to another intermediate host or to the final vertebrate host
  19. Schistosomiasis
    • blood flukes mature in the veins and reside in the intestines
    • main component of transmission is thru fecal matter (where they lay their eggs)
    • intermediate host is normally a snail
  20. Life cycle of Clonorchis
    • ingested by humans thru consumption of raw fish
    • adult flukes make babies and lay their eggs in the poo poo
    • somehow snails end up comsuming it
    • the fish consume the snails and then it goes back to human consumption
  21. Syncytial tegument
    An external body covering all parasites share. Non-ciliated. (Syncytial: many nuclei in a single membrane)

    extraepidermal layer of one/few multinucleated cell(s) w/ protective covering, in many flukes
  22. Opisthaptor
    Monogenea are a group of largely ectoparasitic members of the flatworm phylum, they clamp onto the gills and external surfaces of fish using a hooked attachment organ called an opisthaptor
  23. Scolex
    the anterior end of a tapeworm, bearing suckers and hooks for attachment to a host
  24. Proglottid
    each segment in the strobila of a tapeworm, containing a complete sexually mature reproductive system
  25. Tapeworm lifecycle
    • consumption of rare beef by humans
    • shelled larva in feces
    • grass, contaminated with eggs, is ingested by cows
    • cysts in muscle "measly beef"
    • undercooked meat with living cysticercus
  26. Synapomorphies of bilateral animals
    • bilateral symmetry
    • cephalization- formation of a head
    • triploblasty: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  27. Platyhelminthes Diversity
    • "Turbellaria"- free living flatworms
    • Trematoda- endoparasitic flukes
    • Monogenea- ectoparasitic flukes
    • Cestoda- endoparasitic tapeworms
  28. Platyhelminthes- "Turbellaria"
    • free-living
    • paraphyletic group
    • most are carnivorous
    • move by cilia action and muscle contraction
    • mouth is located halfway down on ventral side
    • marine flatworms are best representatives (bright, contrasting colors, taste bad, sting, release chemical)
  29. Platyheminthes- Trematoda
    • endoparasitic flukes
    • digenea is best known group
    • complex life cycles: use and intermediate host like a snail and final definitive host is a vertebrate
    • inhabit many different regions in the body
  30. Platyhelminthes- Monogenea
    • ectoparasitic flukes
    • most attach to gills or skin of fish (opisthaptor)
    • life cycles--> lost intermediate host
  31. Platyhelminthes- Cestoda
    • endoparasitic tapeworms
    • scolex
    • proglottids
    • no intestine
    • life cycles--> intermediate host, then definitive vertebrate host
Card Set
Bio 101 lecture 8 vocab and key ideas