Gait (Quiz 1)

  1. Quantitative Measures
    Temporal (relating to time).
  2. Qualitative Measures
  3. Observational Gait Analysis (OGA)
    • 1. Used for gross movement.
    • 2. Plane of view dependent.
    • 3. Watch same body part and follow sequential body segments until completed with view
  4. Spatial and Temporal Measures
    Quantitive measures of space/distance and time.
  5. Measuring Equipment
    Accelerometers, walk way with inbedded switches, electrogoniometers, motion analyzers
  6. Variables
    • 1. Ground reaction forces.
    • - Measurement of forces in 3 planes
    • 2. Foot pressure distribution.
    • 3. Center of pressure.
    • - Measure of stability static or dynamic
    • 4. Joint Torques
  7. Kinematic Gait Analysis
    • 1. Description of movement patterns.
    • - No regard for forces causing movements.
    • - Description of whole body or parts.
    • - Qualitative or quantitative.
  8. Most Common Gait Analysis
    Rancho Los Amigos gait description
  9. Purpose of Gait Analysis
    • 1. ID deviations
    • 2. Examine balance, energy expenditure, endurance, and safety
    • 3. Determine effectiveness of treatment
  10. Stance Phase
    When foot is on the ground. Has three periods: initial double stance, single limb support, and terminal stance. (60% of the phase)
  11. Swing Phase
    When the foot is not in contact with the ground (40%)
  12. Double Support Time
    When both LEs are in contact with the floor (20% of cycle)
  13. Single Stance
    Entire body weight on one LE.
  14. Stride
    One complete cycle
  15. Step
    2 steps=one stride
  16. Cadence
    speed (WNL= 95 step/min)
  17. Step Length
    Distance from HS of one foot to HS of opposite foot.
  18. Weight Acceptance (Initial Contact and Loading Response)
    Most demanding of tasks: shock absorption, limb stability, and progression.
  19. Initial Contact (Heel Strike)
    Moment foot briefly touches floor. Determines how leading will occur.
  20. Loading Response (Foot Flat)
    • 1. Double stance
    • 2. Ends when opposite LE off floor (contralateral toe off).
    • 3. Absorbs shock.
    • 4. Weight-bearing stability.
    • 5. Preserve progression
  21. Single Limb Support: Mid-stance and Heel Off
    Opposite foot in swing, one limb FWB, frontal and sagittal plane stability required.
  22. Mid-Stance
    • 1. Initial part of single limb support
    • 2. Progression over stationary foot.
    • 3. Limb and trunk stability needed.
  23. Heel Off (Terminal Stance)
    • 1. Continued single limb support.
    • 2. Heel rise until opposite foot strikes ground.
    • 3. Body must continue forward progression beyond the supporting LE.
  24. Limb Advancement: Pre-swing(Toe-Off), Initial Swing (acceleration), Mid-Swing, and Terminal Swing (Deceleration)
    During stance begin to prepare for limb advancement (swing)
  25. Pre-swing (Toe-Off)
    • 1. Terminal double stance interval.
    • 2. Begins with IC of opposite limb and ends with toe-off
    • 3. Preparing for swing.
    • 4. Not contributing to weight transfer to opposite limb
  26. Initial Swing (Acceleration)
    • 1. First 1/3rd of swing.
    • 2. Beings with foot off floor. (toe off)¬†
    • 3. Ends when foot opposite stance foot. (max knee flexion)
    • 4. Floor clearance
  27. Mid-Swing
    • 1. Begins with limb opposite stance limb (max knee flex)
    • 2. Ends with limb forward and tibia vertical.
    • 3. Limb advancement complete and leg ahead of thigh.
    • 4. Prepare limb for stance.
  28. Terminal Swing (Deceleration)
    • 1. Begins with tibia vertical.
    • 2. Ends with foot striking floor.
    • 3. Limb advancement complete and leg ahead of thigh.
    • 4. Prepare limb for stance.
  29. Maintaining Stability
    Body segments fall toward ground unless restrained.
  30. Knee CT Used for Gait Control
    Balance of ligament and muscle.
  31. Hip CT Used for Gait Control
    Balance of ligament and muscle.
  32. Ankle CT Used for Gait Control
    Just muscle.
  33. Whats Needs With Body Weight Ahead of Foot?
    PF needed to retrain forward fall of body.
  34. During Single Limb Support Body Weight....
    Shifts laterally over limb and the hip abducts to prevent pelvic drop.
  35. Progression: Basic Purpose of Locomotor System
    • 1. Requires forward fall of body weight.
    • 2. Also requires forward swing of contralateral LE.
    • 3. At the end of step weight is caught by contralateral LE.
Card Set
Gait (Quiz 1)
Gait information pertaining to first quiz. Gait Deviations on separate set.