Social Psychology Midterm #1

  1. ABC's of attitudes
    • Affect
    • Behavior
    • Cognition
  2. Most important theory of prejudice reduction is...
    Contact Hypothesis
  3. Dominik, Brown
    Focus on contact hypothesis, British
  4. Kelley: Experiment, Theories,
    • Attribution
    • Experiment: Information given to students influenced their opinions about instructor as well as behavior (Warm cold variable)
    • Theory of Covariation: People try to see if a particular effect and a particular cause go together across different situations.
    • Information Processing
  5. Attribution Theory
    • On limited info we make up something a lot bigger and draw conclusions that influence our behavior
    • Drawing conclusions on little evidence, falsifies reality
  6. Social Cognition
    The way people think, feel, relate to others and how it influences their behavior
  7. Heuristics
    A shortcut for problem solving that reduces complex or ambiguous information to more simple judgmental operations
  8. Kahneman & Tversky
    • Won Nobel Prize for Heuristics and its application to economics
    • Implications: HEURISTICS Cognition is influenced by culture, values, and beliefs that can influence a person's decisions, areas of diversity makes it harder to predict a person's actions
  9. White
    Realistic Empathy, cold war
  10. Russel
    Locus & control, 1st scale
  11. Rotter
    • Locus of control DOES NOT EQUAL locus & control
    • Perception of reason for attribution is important
    • People attribute reinforcement differently which can affect interpersonal relationships
  12. Bandura
    Vicarious reinforcement and learning
  13. Heider --> Kelley --> Rotter
    Balance Theory (Locus & control) --> Attribution Theory --> Reinforcement
  14. Betancourt
    • Situational v. Dispositional Factors that influence behavior
    • Intentionality --> Conflict Resolution
  15. Fundamental Attribution Error
    • Happens when you judge behavior of someone else, actor-observer
    • Tend to attribute things dispositionally with other, and situationally with ourselves
  16. Ultimate Attribution Error
    • Houston & Pettigrew
    • Actor-observer discrepancy, except make the error when judge people in conflict or when there is an in-group or outgroup
  17. Weiner
    • Motivational Theorist
    • Then began focusing on the consequences of internal v. external, controllable v. uncontrollable, dispositional v. situational.
    • ATTRIBUTION THEORY: Stability of attribution springs the expectancy of change
  18. Expectancy-Value Theory
    Behavior is motivated by value (how important is goal to you) and expectancy (if you expect to fail, you will and it will affect your drive)
  19. Seligman
    • Realized the only way to explain behavior of depressed people was to realize that attribute things to uncontrollable, stable, and internal causes
    • Globality --> Attribution theory
  20. Batson
    • Helping Behaviors:
    • Adopting perspective of another person induces experience of empathic feeling --> responsible for making people help

    Those who experienced distress with empathic feeling only help if there's no way for them to get away
  21. What influences when attitudes predict behavior?
    • Glasman & Alberacin
    • Amount of information
    • Rehearsing and practicing strengthens attitudes
    • Having direct personal experiences
    • Vested Interest
    • Relevance
    • Salience
    • Stability
    • Accessibility
  22. Heider
    Attribution Theory: The principles that determine how causal attributions are made and what effects they have. Heuristics

    Balance Theory: earliest consistency theory. Imbalanced configurations tend to change toward balanced ones.Imbalanced systems produce pressures toward attitude change until there is balanceBalance Theory uses a least effort principle to predict direction of change
  23. Hovland
    • Learning Theory
    • Approach that assumes that a person's attitudes are based on principles of reinforcement, association, imitation, and punishment
  24. Fishbein
    Theory of Recent Action
  25. Festinger
    • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    • Inconsistency between two cognitive elements proudces pressure to make elements consistent
    • Three ways of reducing dissonance: change our behavior in some way, rationalize the dissonance, changing the attitude
  26. Things that contribute to dissonance
    • Insufficient Justification
    • Threats
    • Choice
    • Irrevocable Commitment
    • Forseeable Consequences
    • Responsibility for Consequences
    • Effort
    • Self-Relevance
  27. Fundamental Attribution Error
    People overestimate how much a person's action are due to dispositions such as personality
  28. Ross
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  29. Milgram
    • Power of the situation
    • Zimbardo
  30. When stereotypes are problematic
    • Tend to emphasize homogeneity of outgroup
    • Minimize intergroup differences (Outgroup homogeneity effect)
    • Intergroup favoritism reinforcement
    • Can lead to prejudice and discrimination
  31. Conformity
    • Asche: Are the lines the same length
    • Sherif: Robber's Cave
  32. Groupthink
    Moorehead, Janice
  33. Eagley
    • Look at attitudes towards women
    • 1st female scientist
  34. Types of Heuristics
    • Availability
    • Biases based on retrievability
    • Biases due to effectiveness of a search set
    • Biases of imaginability
    • Representativeness
    • Misconceptions of Chance and probability
    • Insensitivity to sample size, regression, previous probability outcomes
Card Set
Social Psychology Midterm #1
Social Psychological Theories and People