Chapter 9

  1. electromyogram (EMG)
    an electrical potential recorded from an electrode placed on or in a muscle
  2. electro-oculogram (EOG)
    an electrical potential from the eyes, recorded by means of electrodes placed on the skin around them; detects eyemovements
  3. alpha activity
    smooth electrical activity of 8-12 Hz recorded from the brain; generally associated with a state of relaxation
  4. beta activity
    irregular electrical activity 13-30 Hz recorded from the brain; generally associated with a state of arousal
  5. theta activity
    EEG activity of 3.5-7.5 Hz that occurs itermittently during early stages of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep
  6. delta activity
    regular, synchronous electrical activity of less than 4 Hz recorded from the brain; occurs during the deepest stages of slow-wave sleep
  7. REM sleep
    a period of desynchronized EEG activity during sleep, at which time dreaming, rapid eye movements, and muscular paralysis occur; also called paradoxical sleep
  8. non-REM sleep
    all stages of sleep except REM sleep
  9. slow-wave sleep
    non-REM sleep, characterized by synchronized EEG activity during its deeper stages
  10. basic rest-activity cycle
    a 90 minute cycle (in humans) of waxing and waning alterness, controlled by a biological clockin the caudal brain stem; controls cycles of REM sleep and slow-wave sleep
  11. drug dependency insomina
    an insomina caused by the side effects of ever-increasing doses of sleep medications
  12. sleep apnea
    cessation of breathing while sleeping
  13. narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder characterized by periods of irresistible sleep, attacks of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations
  14. sleep attack
    a symptoms of narcolepsy; an irresistible urge to sleep during the day, after which the person awakens feeling refreshed
  15. cataplexy
    a symptom of narcolepsy; complete paralysis that occurs during waking
  16. sleep paralysis
    a symptom of narcolepsy; paralysis occuring just before a pseron falls asleep
  17. hypnagogic hallucination
    a symptom of narcolepsy; vivid dreams that occur just before a person falls asleep; accompanied by sleep paralysis
  18. hypocretin
    a peptide, also known as orexin, produced by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus; their destruction causes narcolepsy
  19. REM sleep behavior disorder
    a neurological disorder in which the person does not become paralyzed during REM sleep and thus acts out dreams
  20. sleep-related eating disorder
    a disorder in which the person leaves his or her bed and seeks out and eats food while sleepwalking, usually without membor for the episode the next day
  21. fatal familial insomina
    a fatal inherited disorder characterized by progressive insomnia
  22. rebound phenomenon
    the increased frequency or intensity of a phenomenon after it has been temporarily suppresed; for example, the increase in REM sleep seen after a period of REM sleep deprivation
  23. locus coeruleus
    a dark-colored group of noradrenergic cell bodies located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle; involved in around and vigilance
  24. raphe nuclei
    a group of nuclei located in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons, and midbrain, situated along the midline; contain serotonergic neurons
  25. tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN)
    a nucleus in the ventral posterior hypothalamus, just rostral to the mammillary bodies; contains histaminergic neurons involved in cortical activation and behavioral arousal
  26. ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA)
    a group of GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area whose activity suppresses alterness and behavioral arousal and promotes sleep
  27. PGO wave
    bursts of phasic electrical activity originating in the pons, followed by activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex; a characteristic of REM sleep
  28. peribrachial area
    the region around the brachium conjunctivum, located in the dorsolateral pons; contains acetylhoinergic neurons involved in the initation of REM sleep
  29. carbachol
    a drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors
  30. medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF)
    a region that contains neurons involved in the initiation of REM sleep; activated by acetylcholinergic neurons of the peribrachial area
  31. magnocellular nucleus
    a nucleus in the medulla; involve din the muscular paralysis that accompanies REM sleep
  32. circadian rhythm
    a daily rhythmical change in beavhioral or physiological process
  33. zeitgber
    a stimulus (usually the light of dawn) that resets the biological clock that is responsible for circadian rhythms
  34. suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
    a nucleus situated atop the optic chiasm, it contains a biological clock that is responsible for organizing many of the body's circadian rhythms
  35. melanopsin
    a photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit information to the SCN, the thalamus, and the olivary pretectal nuclei
  36. advanced sleep phase syndrome
    a 4-hour advance in rhythms of sleep and temperature cycles, apparently caused by a mutation of a gene involved in the rhythmicity of neurons of the SCN
  37. delayed sleep phase syndrome
    a 4-hour delay in rhythms of sleep and temperature cycles, possibly caused by a mutation of a gene involve din teh rhythmicity of neurons of the SCN
  38. pineal gland
    a gland attached to the dorsal tectum; produces melatonin and plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms
  39. melatonin
    a hormone secreted during the night by the pineal body; plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms
Card Set
Chapter 9
Sleep and Biological Rhythms