1. What influences food choices?
    • Personal preference
    • habit
    • ethnic heritage or tradition
    • social interactions
    • availability, convenience and economy
    • positive and negative association
    • emotions
    • values
    • body weight and image
    • nutrition and health benefits
  2. Six classes of nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • lipids (fats)
    • proteins
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  3. What percent have a ethnic emphasis?
  4. How often is your skin cells entirely replaced?
    every 7 years
  5. Your digestion tract lining is renewed how often?
    3 to 5 days
  6. How much of the human body is made up of water?
  7. Essential nutrients
    • The nutrients that foods must supply.
    • indispensable nutrients
    • 40 nutrients are currently known to be essential for human beings.
  8. inorganic nutrients
    • minerals and water.
    • do not contain carbon.
  9. organic compounds
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • vitamins
  10. energy yielding nutrients
    • Carbohydrate
    • fat
    • protein
  11. calories
    The energy released from carbohydrate, fat and protein.
  12. macronutrients
    carbohydrat, fat and protein
  13. microonutrients
    vitamins and minerals
  14. nutrients
    chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating, agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. nutrients may also reduce the risks of some diseases.
  15. energy
    the capacity to do work. the energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical, electrical or heat energy.
  16. high energy density
    foods help with weigh gain
  17. low energy density
    help with weight loss
  18. How much energy is yields from food?
    • 4 calories from carbohydrate
    • 4 calories from protein
    • 9 calories from fat
    • 7 calories from alcohol
  19. alcohol
    • contributes energy
    • Is not a nutrient.
    • Does not sustain life
  20. metabolism
    The processes by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or used to make body structures.
  21. vitamins
    • organic
    • do not provide energy
    • They facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein and participate in numerous other activities
    • 13 Vitamins
    • vulnerable to destruction by heat, light and chemical agents.
  22. Water soluble vitamins
    • Vitamin c
    • 8 B vitamins:
    • thiamin
    • riboflavin
    • niacin
    • vitamins B6 and B12
    • folate
    • biotin
    • pantothenic acid
  23. Fat soluble vitamins
    • Vitamins A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  24. Minerals
    • do not yield energy
    • 16 minerals are essential in human nutrition.
    • inorganic
    • indestructible
  25. water
    • essential nutrient
    • naturally carries many minerals
  26. 1 ounce is equal to ?
    30 ml (cc)
  27. Double blind experiment
    experiment in which neither the subjects not the researchers know which subjects are members of the ewperimental group and which are serving as control subjects, until after the experiment is over.
  28. placebo
    in inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope; a sham treatment used in controlled research studies.
  29. clinical trials
    involve human beings who follow a specified regimen
  30. positive correlation
    • both variables change in the same direction.
    • The more vitamin c, the more colds.
  31. negative correlation
    • the two variables change in opposite directions.
    • the more vitamin c, the fewer colds
  32. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
    • The result of thousands of research studies, nutrition experts have produced a set of standards that define the amounts of energy, nutrients, other dietary components, and physical activity that best support health.
    • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
    • Adequate Intakes (AI)
    • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels(UL)
  33. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    • requirement for a nutrient-how much is needed in the diet.
    • Committee clusters its recommendations for people into groups based on age and gender.
  34. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
    • Once a nutrient requirement is established, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for everybody.
    • Recommendations are set high.
  35. deficient
    less than the requirement.
  36. Adequate Intakes (AI)
    reflects the average amount of a nutrient that a group of healthy people consume.
  37. tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that apperars safe for most healthy people and peyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
  38. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
    The average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height and level of physical activity.
  39. Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR)
    • ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequtate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
    • 45 to 65 percent cal. from carbs.
    • 20 to 35 percent cal. from fat
    • 10 to 35 percent cal from proteins
  40. Reference adults
    • Men: 19-30 5ft 10in 154lbs
    • women 19-30 5ft 4in 126lbs
  41. FAO (food and agriculture organization)
    WHO(World health organization)
    recommendations are considered sufficient to maintain health in nearly all healthy people worldwide.
  42. malnutrition
    any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
  43. undernutrition
    deficient energy or nutrients
  44. overnutrition
    excess energy or nutrients
  45. nutrition assessment
    a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests
  46. historical information
    person's history with respect to health status, socioeconomic status, drug use and diet.
  47. Anthropometric measurements
    Height and weight
  48. physical examination
    visual inspection of hair, skin, posture, tongue, and fingernails.
  49. Laboratory test
    samples of blood or urine, analyze them in the laboratory.
  50. healthy people program
    identifies the nation's health priorities and guides policies that promote health and prevent disease.
  51. Leading causes of death in the united states
    • Heart disese 26.5
    • cancers 22.8
    • strokes 5.9
    • chronic lung disease 5.3
    • accidents 4.7
    • diabetes mellitus 3.1
  52. Chronic diseases
    diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration. examples include heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
  53. Risk factor
    a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal. leading risk factors for chronic diseases include obesity, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits and whole grains.
  54. factors contributing to deaths in the us
    • tabacco 18
    • poor diet/inactivity 15
    • alcohol 4
    • microbial agents 3
    • toxic agents 2
    • motor vehicles 2
    • firearms 1
    • sexual behavior 1
    • illicit drugs 1
  55. acute
    • new, quick onset
    • appendix
  56. Registered dietitian
    earn an undergraduate degree reqiring about 60 credit hours in nurtition, food science and other related subjects. complete a year's clinical internship or the equivalent, pass a national examination administered by the ADA
Card Set
nutrition vocabulary