STT in Sports Medicine

  1. Goals of Exercise therapy
    • 1.
    • Encourage healing at the site of the soft tissue injury

    • 2.
    • Prevent secondary problems

    • 3.
    • Improve and maintain muscles extensibility and joint ROM

    • 4.
    • Decrease recovery time

    • 5.
    • Strengthen the site of injury

    • 6.
    • Regain muscle responsiveness and tone

    • 7.
    • Prevent reoccurrence of the injury

    • 8.
    • Maintain fitness and function of the body

    • 9.
    • Implement rehabilitation programs

    10. Education of client

    11. Provide ongoing advice
  2. The primary effects of sports massage are the physiological and psychological changes in the athlete.
    Name a few..
    • - Improved circulation
    • - Muscle relaxation
    • - Seperation of muscle and connective tissue
    • - Deactivation of trigger points
    • - Increased alertness and mental clarity
  3. The secondary effects of sports massage are the performance related outcomes that resulted from the primary effects of the massage.
    Name a few...
    • - Increased energy
    • - Freer movement at joints
    • - Faster recovery time
    • - Pain reduction
  4. Name a few possible contraindications..
    • - around an infection
    • - near a fracture
    • - varicose veins
    • - rashes
    • - open wounds
    • - Fever
  5. There are a number of precautions when massaging, name a few..
    • - Diabetes
    • - High/low BP
    • - Kidney disease
    • - Sprains / Strains
    • - Edema
  6. What are the goals of pre-event massage?
    • - Warm the muscle by increasing it's circulation
    • - Prepare the athlete mentally
    • - Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
  7. What are the goals of intercompetition massage?
    • - Ongoing stimulation of the nervous system
    • - Maintain muscle temp and responsiveness
    • - Prevent the shortening of soft tissue structures during rest
  8. What are the goals for post-event massage?
    • - Aid in the return of venous blood / removal of metabolites
    • - Improve nutrition to the tissues
    • - Return muscles to resting tone
    • - Decrease mental alertness
    • - Calm the nervous system
  9. What are the goals for condition management massage?
    • - To address total physical health of the athlete
    • - To prevent or treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions
    • - Promote healthy scar tissue
  10. Longitudinal frictions are excellent for the mechanical removal of metabolites, reduction in muscle tension and for the reorganisation of new collagen fibres.
    What are the guidelines?
    • - Techniques should follow direction of muscle fibres
    • - Always applied pressure towards the heart
    • - Depth of pressure should increase gradually
  11. Cross fibre frictions are useful for reducing intra-muscular thickening that has caused reduced ROM or function.
    What are the guidelines?
    • - The techniques run at 90 defrees to the muscle fibres
    • - Depth of pressure should increase gradually
    • - Should be followed by muscle lengthening techniques such as long. frictions or stretching
  12. What is an istonic muscle contraction?
    Is it voluntary/involuntary?
    Name the 2 ways in which it occurs?
    • It is voluntary.
    • The 2 ways in which it can occur are concentric contraction - the muscle shortens as it contracts against a force
    • eccentric contraction - the muscle lengthens while contracting against a force
  13. Is an isometric muscle contraction voluntary or involuntary?
    Does it create movement at the joint?
    • It is a voluntary movement.
    • There is no movement at the joint in an isometric contraction
  14. What is static stretching?
    This is where the muscle is stretched and held at the point just before it becomes painful. This is held for 30 seconds. The muscle should then be able to move further.
  15. What is ballistic stretching?
    This involves moving a body part to its end of range in a bouncing action.
  16. Acute Phase
    • Last's about 1-3 days with the main symptoms as heat, swelling, redness pain and loss of function.
    • The clinical picture:
    • constant pain
    • PROM will produce muscle spasm
    • referred pain is likely
    • difficulty in falling asleep
  17. Early sub-acute Phase
    • Occurs between 2 days - 2 weeks.
    • The healing begins with the formation of granulation tissue.
    • Pain is only experienced during ROM
  18. Late sub-acute Phase
    • 2nd 3rd week of the sub acute stage.
    • This stage is where the remodelling of the tissue happens, therefore adhesions may limit ROM
  19. Chronic inflammation
    From 3 weeks to years. It is diagnosed when the inflammatory process goes for longer than is beneficial to the patient
  20. Treatment of Sports Injury
    Shouldn't take place until after the initial 24-72 hours. Instead, the therapist should aim to reduce internal and external bleeding
  21. Define... Scar Tissue
    a collagen based tissue that develops as a result of the inflammatory process
  22. Depending on the extent of soft tissue loss, the body will heal with first intention, or second intention healing.
    • First intention - when the edges of the damaged tissue remain in contact and the scar tissue can knit them together
    • Second intention - when there is a space between the edges of the tissue. This space is filled with collagen
  23. Causes of scar tissue
    • -The inflammatory response
    • - Prolonged immobilisation
  24. Adhesions
    • -Occur when reduced ROM at a joint allows cross linkages in collagen to form
    • - They can occur within and between skin, muscles, tendons and groups of muscles
  25. Contractures
    • A result of ahdesions and are sometimes irreversible.
    • The reduced ROM caused by the adhesions will lead to chronic shortening of soft tissue
  26. Irreversible contractures
    • This occurs when fibrotic tissue or bone replaces the muscles and connective tissue.
    • This results in permanent loss of ROM
  27. Define... Sprain and its causes
    • an overstretch injury to a ligament.
    • It is usually a trauma related sudden twist or wrench beyound its normal range.
  28. Grade 1 Sprain
    • Minimal edema, bruising, pain
    • the joint is stable
    • the athlete can continue
  29. Grade 2 Sprain
    • The joint gives way
    • There is moderate heat, edema and bruising
    • It is difficult to continue activity
  30. Grade 3 Sprain
    • There is a snapping noise
    • Intense or absent pain
    • marked local edema, bruising and heat
    • joint is unstable
    • cannot continue activity
  31. Define... Strain and its causes
    • An overstretch injury to a musculotendinous unit.
    • The causes are a sudden overstretching of the muscle, or a forceful contraction of the muscle against heavy resistance.
    • Inadequate warm up, little flexibilty, repetitive overuse and altered biomechanics also contribute
  32. Grade 1 Strain
    • May be local edema, bruising, swelling
    • Tenderness
    • Little or no loss of strength
    • Able to continue the activity
  33. Grade 2 Strain
    • Moderate local edema, bruising, heat
    • May be a gap in the tissue
    • Moderate intensity/pain when contracted/ stretched
    • Moderate loss of strength and ROM
    • Difficulty continuing activity
  34. Grade 3 Strain
    • Complete rupture/ avulsion fracture
    • Snapping noise or sensation
    • Marked local edema, bruising, heat
    • Gap in tissue
    • Severe pain
    • Cannot continue activity
    • Immediate loss of strength and ROM
Card Set
STT in Sports Medicine
Sports Medicine