1. the scientific study of behavior
    and mental processes.
  2. draw conclusions based on evidence,
    not speculation.
  3. Goal of psychology should be to
    identify the functions
    of behaviors and mental processes, particularly as they relate to survival. Based on Darwin’s principle of natural
  4. Originated (in mid-1800s) with
    Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician who originated Western psychotherapy

    Argued that various psychological
    forces pushed and pulled humans in different directions (hence the term

    Emphasized the importance of
    unconscious, and often irrational, motives in both normal and disturbed human
  5. Arose
    in early 1900s as a reaction against the psychodynamic and structuralist
    schools. Key figures were Pavlov,
    Watson, and Skinner.

    that overt behavior and its environmental causes, not mental processes, should
    be the main focus of study because they are directly observable.
  6. a
    more recent version of behaviorism that emphasizes the importance of learning
    through observing others (social learning).
    Social Learning
  7. Emerged in mid-20th century in reaction to behaviorism
    and the psychodynamic perspective, which humanists argued underemphasized the
    qualities that made human beings unique.

    According to humanists, those
    qualities included: 1) a drive toward self-actualization (self-development) and 2) behavior
    governed by conscious, rational choice (not irrational, unconscious impulses).
  8. Arose
    in 1950s as psychologists began to compare the mind to computers, and also
    became dissatisfied with behaviorism.

    the study of cognitive (mental) processes, such as attention, memory,
    problem-solving, etc. and how they lead to behavior.

    Has become the dominant perspective
    in psychology today. Even behaviorists
    are cognitively-oriented
  9. Focuses on the biological basis of
    behavior, including the functioning of genes, the nervous system, and the
    endocrine system.
  10. Like functionalism, the
    evolutionary perspective emphasizes studying how behavior and mental processes
    have been influenced by the pressures of natural selection (survival of the fittest).
  11. The sociocultural perspective
    emphasizes the influence of social circumstances in shaping behavior and mental

    One of these circumstances is our culture.

    The other is the immediate social
    situation we are in (e.g., being in a crowd vs. being alone). A key principle of social
    psychology is the power
    of the situation.
  12. an
    organized set of statements designed to explain, predict, and describe some
    phenomenon or set of phenomena
  13. a
    specific prediction derived from a theory
  14. any
    aspect of a person or group of people, or of the physical or social
    environment, that can vary
  15. the
    evidence or information collected through research
  16. a
    relationship between two variables
  17. a
    relationship between two variables in which not only are they positively or
    negatively correlated, but one of them influences the other.
    • Cause-and-effect
    • relationship
  18. obtaining
    participants in a research project through a random procedure. This makes it likely that the participants
    will be representative of the group from which they are selected
    • Random
    • sampling
  19. randomly
    assigning participants in an experiment to different groups. This makes it likely that the groups of
    people will be similar.
    • Random
    • assignment
  20. Conducting
    the same or similar research again with another group of people, and finding
    similar results. This increases
    confidence that the original result was not an accident.
  21. Single individuals (“cases”) are
    examined in great detail.

    Main strength: Much information is
    gathered about the individual(s) studied.

    Weakness: Unrepresentative sample,
    so conclusions cannot be generalized.
    • Case
    • Studies
  22. Observe
    behavior without attempting to change it.

    Unlike in surveys, actual behavior is observed.
    If done unobtrusively in a natural setting (naturalistic observation), a
    good idea of how participants behave naturally (in “real life”) can be

    weaknesses: Some aspects of behavior cannot (or should not) be observed. It is also time-consuming. Therefore, it is
    difficult to observe a representative sample of people.
  23. Participants are asked and answer
    questions in oral (interview) or written (questionnaire) form.

    Strengths: can gather information
    quickly from a large group of people. If
    random sampling is used (as it should be!), a representative sample is
    likely. And many topics off-limits to
    observational research can be studied.

    Major weakness: Respondents aren’t
    necessarily honest or accurate.
  24. A variable that is manipulated in
    an experiment
    • Independent
    • Variable
  25. A
    variable whose level is expected to depend on the level of an independent
    Dependent Variable
  26. Participants are randomly divided
    into groups that are each exposed to only one level of the independent
    Between-subjects Design
  27. Each participant is exposed to all
    levels of the independent variable.
    Within-subjects Design
  28. Individuals
    change their behavior in the absence of any treatment because of the
    individual’s belief that they have received a treatment.
    Placebo effect
  29. Results
    that occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to the
    participants the kind of behavior he or she expects, therefore creating the expected
    reaction and/or outcome
    Expectancy effect
  30. Materials
    and procedures are kept the same for all participants, except for the
    independent variable.
  31. Neither
    the experimenter nor the participants are aware of who is receiving which
    Double-blind procedure
  32. Behavior identified through a
    participant’s own
    and reports
    Self-report Measures
  33. Overt actions and reactions that
    are observed and recorded

    Direct observations

    Naturalistic observations
    Behavioral Measures
  34. Degree to which a measure produces
    similar scores each time it is used

    Stability, consistency
  35. Extent to which a measurement
    instrument measures what it was intended to measure
  36. Total of scores divided by total number of scores
  37. Center score
  38. Most frequently occuring score
  39. Strength of experiments:
    • Because of
    • the carefully controlled situation in which only the independent variable is
    • allowed to affect the dependent variable, cause/effect relationships can be
    • observed.
  40. Weakness of experiments
    • Such carefully controlled
    • situations are often different from “real-world” situations researchers are
    • trying to understand. There are also
    • situations that cannot practically or ethically be studied in experiments.
  41. Conditioned taste aversion
    • •development
    • of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was
    • followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
  42. Reason for conditioned taste aversion
    Biological preparedness
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