what are the general themes of life?
the cell as the fndamental unit of life, the correlation of structure and function and the exchange of matter and energy as organisms interact with the environment. Evolution is the core theme of biology.
list the level of life's hierarchy?
biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle, molecule
Differentiate tissue types from organ systems of the human body and give examples of each (epithelial, etc., etc.)
epithelial tissues are sheets of closely packed cells that cover your body surface and line your internal organs and activities (lining of the outside of the lung)
connective tissue consists of a sparce population of cells scattered thoughout an extracellular material called a matrix; (6 types: loose, fibrous, adipose, cartilage, bone, blood)
muscle tissue is the most abundant tissue and consists of long cells called muscle fibers. (3 types: skeletal that attaches to your bones by tendons, cardiac that forms the contractile tissue of your heart, and smooth (lack of striations) which is found in the walls of your disgestive tract, arteries and other internal organs)
Nervous tissue senses stimuli and rapidly transmits information. found in your brain and spinal cord.
Know the seven properties/processes of life.
Order, reproduction, growth and development, energy processing, response to the environment, regulation, evolutionary adapation
What is homeostasis?
steady state of internal enviroment
Describe the four physical processes of heat exchange for animals.
What is thermoregulation?
homeostatic mechanism to maintain an internal temp.
Know the five adaptations that help animals thermoregulate.
metabolic heat production-shivering, movement
circulatory-dilation/constriction/conuter current exchange(important for animals in cold water)
behavioral responses-in the sun/in the shade/migration
Describe the two main points of evolution from Darwin’s book.
living species decendants of ancestral species decent with modification
natural selection is a mechanism for evolution
Describe how natural selection works (individual variation, overproduction of offspring, etc.).
: individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are passed on from parents to offspring.
overproduction of offspring: a population can produce far more offspring than an environment can support.
unequal reproductive success: individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment are more likely to sruvive and reproduce than are less well-suited individuals.
- adaptive traits accumulate:as a result of this unequal reproductive over many generations, a higher and higher proportion of individuals will have the advantageious traits.
Differentiate the three domains of life from each other.
Bacteria: prokaryotic(most unicelluar and microscopic)
Archaea: prkaryotic (most unicelluar and microscopic)
Eukarya: eukaryotic ( have nucleus and organelles)
Know what biology studies
is the study of life: enormous scope (level, time, information)
know what biology can/cannot answer
it can answer questions that help us understand our world. it can not claim absolute knowledge.
know what biology's basic rules are
observe, confirm, communicate, no final truths
Describe the two main approaches of scientific method.
observation and discovery: inductive reasoning-specific to general
Hypothesis-based: deductive reasoning-general to specific
Differentiate between scientific fact, hypothesis, law, and theory.
scientific fact: objective and verifiable observation
hypothesis: educated guess that also has to be testable
law: based on confirmed hypotheses over many years of experiments-what nature does
theory: explanation for natural phenomena-how nature works, supported by consillence of evidence, always tentative-is falsfiable (ex: germ theory)
Define “empirical testing”.
testing that is observed repeatedly. the same results are obtained each time. does not incluede supernatural explanations and phenomena