1. 4 outcomes of solar energy lost to radiation
    • Absorbed by ozone
    • Absorbed by the earth
    • Reflected by the earth
    • Radiated by the atmosphere as heat
  2. Primary producers are _________
  3. Primary consumers are ___________
  4. Primary production is measured in units of _______
    Mass of carbon / Area / Time
  5. Trophic efficiency is typically ______ %
  6. States that there is a limit to the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem because you quickly run out of energy
    Energy transfer hypothesis
  7. Highest terrestrial NPP is found in ________
    Equatorial regions; rainforests
  8. Lowest NPP is found in ________
  9. Highest NPP per unit area (type of environment)
    Algal beds and reefs
  10. Highest total NPP (type of environment)
    Open ocean
  11. What limits the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems? (2)
    Precipitation and light
  12. Vast majority of the air we breathe is _______
  13. Change of unusable Nitrogen into more usable forms by certain organisms
    Nitrogen fixation
  14. 2 ways in which nitrogen can be fixed naturally
    • Biological fixation (bacteria)
    • Lightning
  15. 3 ways that nitrogen can be fixed through human action
    • Fossil fuels
    • Nitrogen-fixing crops
    • Nitrogen fertilizer
  16. Ways that humans increase CO2 in the atmosphere (4)
    • Transportation
    • Deforestation
    • Forest fires
    • Burning fossil fuels
  17. Rare type of habitat that comes in the rainy season, during which time certain organisms reproduce, then goes away
    Vernal pool
  18. Goal of conservation biology is to __________
    Protect biodiversity
  19. Trophic level most susceptible to habitat reduction/human impact
    Top predators
  20. Characteristics that increase a species' likelihood of endangerment (8)
    • Low reproductive rate
    • Specialized niche
    • Distribution is too narrow, too large (Territory), or too rare
    • Migrators, Predators
    • Valuable
  21. Benefit of species and genetic diversity
  22. Coined the term "biophilia"
    E.O. Wilson
  23. Concept behind importance of biodiversity that believes its loss would be akin to losing art or music, and may eventually motivate a realignment of our priorities
  24. Easter Island inhabitants exceeded their _________ through ________, which eventually led to ________.
    • Carrying capacity
    • Deforestation
    • Starvation
  25. Most introduced species ________ when they are moved
    Die off
  26. The act of intentionally introducing a species to a new environment with the hope that it will destroy a particular pest
  27. Characteristics of successful invader species are similar to those of ____________
    Pioneering species in post-succession environments
  28. Once most abundant bird in North America, was hunted for meat for the poor/slaves, now extinct due to its huge flock size and overexploitation
    Passenger pigeon
  29. Top caught fish species
    Anchovies off Peru
  30. Overexploitation of fish has largely been due to _________
    Improvements in technology
  31. Where should we focus our conservation efforts?
    Biodiversity hot spots
  32. Successful method of in-situ protection that takes the core area of protection and surrounds it with slightly less-protected buffer zones
    Zone reserves
  33. Basic assumption of restoration ecology is that most environmental damage is ________
  34. Conservation strategy that believes humans need to live in tandem with other organisms, because we need to protect more land than there is left to protect
    Reconciliation Ecology
Card Set