Physiology Ch. 5

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  1. Metabolism
    All reactions that involve energy transformations
  2. ATP
    • Is the universal energy carrier of the cell
    • Energy must be conserved, the bond produced by joining Pi to ADP must contain a part of this energy
    • This energy released when ATP converted to ADP and Pi (ATP--> ADP+Pi
  3. The goal of cell respiration and metabolism is to:
    Produce ATP for energy, not to store it but transfer it for other functions
  4. Metabolism 2 categories:
    • Catabolic
    • Anabolic
  5. Catabolic
    • Release energy
    • Breakdown larger organic molecules into smaller molecules
    • Serve as primary sources of energy for synthesis of ATP
  6. Anabolic
    • Require input of energy
    • Synthesis of large energy-storage molecules
  7. What do Catabolic reactions do?
    Break down glucose, fatty acids and amino acids serve as the primary sources of energy for the synthesis of ATP
  8. What are some examples of metabolic pathways for glucose/glycogen?
    • Glycogenesis
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
  9. Glycogenesis
    • Glucose--> glycogen
    • Glycogen is then stored in the body
  10. Glycogenolysis
  11. Gluconeogenesis
    • Create new glucose molecules from non carbohydrate molecules such as lactic acid---->glucose **by the way of pyruvic acid**
    • The body has to have glucose to produce ATP
  12. Cori Cycle- part of Gluconeogenesis
    • A shared effect between the liver and skeletal muscle
    • Convert lactic acid (that is produced in skeletal muscles)--->blood glucose
    • Produced by process of gluconeogenesis in the liver
  13. 3 metabolic pathways for ATP production: one has to happen in order for the other one to happen
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs cycle
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
  14. Glycolysis
    • The metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down for energy; oxygen is present (aerobic respiration)
    • 1 glucose---> 2 pyruvic acid+2NADH+4ATP
    • "change maker example" cell only accepts quarters
  15. Anaerobic respiration
    When no oxygen is present glucose is changed into lactic acid through the process of glycolysis
  16. Aerobic respiration-breakdown glucose
    • In the presence of Oxygen; glucose is changed into pyruvic acid through the process of glycolysis and there is no lactic acid production; the pyruvic acid is then converted into acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
    • ** NOTE : during glycolysis 1 glucose form 2 pyruvic acid so there are actually 2 molecules of acetyl CoA created during aerobic respiration
  17. Krebs cycle-also known as the citric acid cycle
    • The metabolic pathway (oxygen present) in which acetyl Co A is used to form GTP (can be tranformed into ATP), NADH + FADH2 (these will eventually donate there electrons to result in a large number of ATP in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway
  18. Oxidative phosphorylation
    • The metabolic pathway (oxygen present) in which the electron transport chain acts as an oxidizing agent for NAD & FAD (NADH & FADH2 from Krebs cycle) to produce ATP
    • NET RESULT: 26 ATP
  19. ATP Balance
    • Theoretical ATP yield is(per 1 glucose molecule) 36-38 ATP per glucose molecule
    • Actual ATP yield is 30-32 ATO
  20. Metabolism of lipids
    • Triglycerides can be hydrolyzed into glycerol + fatty acids
    • Fatty acids can be converted to acetyl CoA that can enter the Krebs cycle
  21. Lipogenesis
    The formation of fat
  22. Metabolism of proteins (amino acids)-give alot more energy
    • Process of transamination and deamination
    • These processes remove the nitrogen from the amino group
    • The rest of the amino group can then be metabolized with there intermediates entering either the glycolytic or Krebs cycles
  23. Transamination
    • transfer of the amino group from amino acid to a keto acid
    • Goes through Krebs cycle
  24. Deamination
    • when the amine group from amino acid is removed leaving a keto acid + ammonia
    • goes through Krebs cycle
  25. Additional Facts/information:
    • If too much food is ingested and the body does not need the glucose then ATP production is inhibited and glucose is converted to glycogen and fat for storage (glucose---> glycogen + fat)
    • Fat is the major form of energy storage in the body
    • The brain uses blood glucose as its major energy source- can change in mental status if glucose is too low or high (ex: diabetic_
  26. Gram=kilocalories
    • 1 gram fat= 9 kilocalories of energy
    • 1 gram carbohydrate= 4 kilocalories of energy
    • 1 gram protein= 4 kilocalories of energy
Card Set
Physiology Ch. 5
physiology- cell respiration and metabolism
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