phlebotomy essentials review

  1. 6 key terms of the chain of infection
    • 1)infectious agent
    • 2) a reservoir
    • 3) an exit pathway
    • 4) means of transmission
    • 5)entry pathway
    • 6) susceptible host

    (p 65)
  2. procedures for sharps injury
    • remove sharp and wash with soap and water for a minimum of 30 seconds
    • -immediately report incident to supervisor
    • -report to healthcare provider for medical evaluation
  3. procedures for exposure via mucous membrane
    • flush the site with water or sterile saline for a minimum of 10 minutes.
    • -immediately report incident to supervisor
    • -report to healthcare provider for medical evaluation

  4. symptoms of shock
    • pale cold clammy skin
    • rapid, weak pulse
    • increased, shallow breathing
    • expressionless face and staring eyes
  5. first aid for shock
    • -maintain an open airway for victim
    • -call for assistance
    • -keep victim laying down with head lower than the rest of the body
    • -control bleeding or other cause of shock
    • -keep victim warm
  6. creatinine is a measure of the _____ function because it is a waste product normally removed from the body, but accumulates with its declining function.

  7. in external respiration
    O2 enters the bloodstream into the lungs and CO2 leaves the bloodstream.
  8. in internal respiration
    O2 leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells in the tissues, and CO2 from the cells enters the blood
  9. Po2 stands for
    partial pressure oxygen

  10. how does CO2 effect PH?
    as CO2 levels increase Ph decreases and becomes more acidic

  11. alveoli is
    -tiny air sacks in the lungs where exchange of oxygen and CO2 take place.

    -single layered, squamous epithelial cells surrounded by thin membrane
  12. when ____ blood is collected by syringe, the pressure normally causes the blood to pump or pulse into the syringe under its own power

  13. tunica adventitia
    the outer layer of a blood vessel
  14. tunica media
    middle layer of a blood vessel
  15. tunica intima
    inner layer of a blood vessel

  16. major structural difference between veins and arteries

  17. platelet lifespan
    10 days
  18. normal number of platelets in the blood of an adult per cubic millimeter
    • 150,000-400,000 per cubic millimeter
    • (p174)
  19. PT stands for
    prothrombin test

    (p 180)
  20. APTT or PTT stands for
    activated partial thromboplastin test

  21. what does an antiseptics do
    • prevents or inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms but does not necessarily kill them.
    • Examples:
    • -70% isopropyl alcohol
    • -providone-iodine (higher degree of antisepsis)

    (p 194)
  22. what do disinfectants do
    • remove or kill microorganisms
    • examples:
    • -Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

    (p 195)
  23. blood is transported in
    biohazard bags: leak proof bag
  24. what can be used in place of a tourniquet?
    a blood pressure cuff no greater than 40 mm Hg

  25. a bevel is
    the cut or slant of the needle
  26. the shaft is
    the long cylindrical portion of a needle
  27. the hub is
    the end that attaches to the blood collection device. AKA tube holder

    (p 201 & 203)
  28. what problem may arise from using a needle too small?
    it may hemolyze the blood (destroy RBCs)

  29. what problem may a needle too big cause?
    damage the vein
  30. typical length of a multisample needle
    1-1.5 inches

    (p 202)
  31. typical syringe needle length
    1-1.5 in
  32. typical butterfly needle length
    1/2-3/4 inch
  33. what is a resheathing device
    the safety feature on a needle. (we never re-cap a needle, only resheath).
  34. ETS stands for
    Evacuated tube system/ multisample needles

    (p 202)
  35. What organization mandates a safety on every needle?
  36. what is a "short draw"
    loss of vacuum during a draw.

    (p 207)
  37. which tube is as free of trace elements contamination as possible?
    royal blue stopper tubes

  38. what temperature should tubes be shored at
    between 4 and 25 Celcius

    (p 209)
  39. what method may be used on someone with small or difficult veins?
    syringe system

    (p 210)
  40. what is a hypodermic needle and what device would have it?
    it's a sterile syringe needle
  41. what is a barrel
    the cylinder with graduated markers in mL or cc measurements
  42. what's a syringe transfer device for?
    safe transfer of blood into the tubes without using the syringe needle or removing the tube stopper.

  43. why invert the syringe when filling tubes?
    blood mixed with additive could get into to the needle and transfer to the next tube.

  44. which method would one use for small or difficult veins on hand, elderly or pediatric patients?
    winged infusion set.

    (p 212)
  45. why discard the first tube when using a winged infusion set?
    the first tube won't fill because of the air in the tube, or the additive will effect the blood-to-additive ratio in the tube used.
  46. what is a "clear" tube
    discard tube of blood before those used for testing
  47. why don't we shake specimen for mixing?
    it could cause hemolysis of the blood. invert tubes 180 degrees each time
  48. methods of anticoagulation in tubes:
    • 1) chelating (binding calcium) or precipitating calcium
    • 2) inhibiting the formation of thrombin
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phlebotomy essentials review
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