LA Med 1

  1. Parotid gland
    • largest salivary gland in retromandibular fossa
    • temporo-mandibular jt to mandible
    • overlap masseter
    • to atlas
    • eaar to intermandibular space
  2. Parotid duct
    • formed from ventral and rostral parotid gland
    • medial mandible
    • follows facial artery and vein
    • opens into buccal vestible on parotid papilla opposite the upper third cheek tooth
  3. trauma to parotid duct/gland
    • bc superficial
    • most common
    • secrete saliva from wound which increases during eating
  4. salivary fistula
    • salivary secretions prevent healinf of parotid duct
    • surgical repair (5-0 to 7-0 non absorb)
    • translocation of duct to new opening in oral cavity
    • chemical ablation with 10% formalin- least necrosis and inflammation
  5. salivary mucocele
    • skin stays intact and saliva accumulates in SQ
    • collections of saliva in spaces not lined by epithelium
  6. ranula
    mucocele of the sublingual salivary gland
  7. salivary cyst
    • aberrent salivary tissue
    • looks like hematoma
  8. salivary fluid content
    • higher K and Ca content
    • alkaline pH
    • amylase
    • (compared to serum)
  9. Sialoliths
    • hard, nonpainful, moveable swellings that can obstruct the parotid duct
    • possibly from old injury
    • calcium carbonate and organic matter
    • remove via oral approach to avoid salivay fistula
  10. Salivary gland neoplasia
    • rare
    • adenocarcinoma, melenoma, mixed cell
    • parotid swelling
  11. parotid duct atresia
    • congenital, rare, duct ends in cul-de-sac without penetrating oral mucosa
    • surgical fix or chemical ablation
  12. choke
    • esophageal impaction
    • feed and water reflux from nostrils and mouth
    • excessive salivation
    • feed impactions most common
  13. diagnosis of choke
    • palpation
    • nasogastric intubation
    • endoscopy
    • radiology
  14. tx choke
    • lavage with warm water- must tranq horse to prevent aspiration (xylazine, detomidine)
    • with draw food and water and leave alone for 12 hrs, repeat lavage
    • choke relief tube with cuff on the end
    • general anesthesia- head down
    • NSAIDs (banamine) and Ab due to risk of aspiration pneumonia
    • withhold feed for 24 hrs, then only feed soaked pellete for a few weeks
  15. esophageal rupture
    • chronic impation
    • traumatic nasogastric intubation
    • trauma to cervical area
    • usually diatal third of cervical esophagus
    • diverticulum if partial tear
    • full tear results in dffuse swelling down the neck
    • infection can extend into mediatinum giving a grave prognosis
  16. tx esophageal rupture
    • establish adewuate drainage
    • place esophageal feeding tube (used for a few wks)
    • NSAIDs and Ab
  17. esophageal stricture
    • sequella of choke, trauma, congenital
    • finished healing after 60 days so no sx until then
    • may get diverticulum in front of stricture
  18. mural esophageal stricture
    involving the adventitia and muscularis
  19. esophageal rings or webs
    involving the mucosa and submucosa
  20. annumlar esophageal stricture
    involves all layer
  21. tx esophageal stricture
    • mural- esophagotomy
    • rings or webs and annular- mucosal and submucosal resection
    • esophageal anastomosis
  22. Common breed/gender colic issues
    • Arabian- enterolithiasis
    • miniature horse- impactions
    • broodmares- large colon displacement
    • stallions- inguinal hernias
    • foals- meconium impaction, ruptured bladder
    • older horses- lipomas, epipoic foramen entrapment, impaction, ascarids
    • performance horses- gas colic
    • coastal hay fed- ileal and cecal impaction
  23. cause of colic pain
    distention of hollow organs
  24. drugs to manage pain from colic
    • xylazine
    • detomidine
    • butorphanol
    • n-butylscopolamine (Buscopan)- anti spasmodic, ant cholinergic
    • NSAID- flunixin meglumine (banamine), ketoprofen, phenylbutazone
    • lidocaine
  25. non-drug tx for colic pain
    • nasogastric decompression
    • trocarization- only large colon distention
  26. cardiovascular status of colic
    • HR below 60 (unless Buscopan at 70)
    • >80 needs CV support- 10 to 20L fluids
    • intestinal secretions normally 30% of body wt- problems if sm int obstruction
  27. upper left quadrant for GI auscultation
    • stomach sounds
    • empties in 2hrs so may be silent
  28. upper right quadrant for GI ausculatation
  29. lower left/right quadrant for GI auscultation
    left/right colon
  30. GI ausculation at xyphoid
  31. Reflux during nasogastric intubation
    • not present normally
    • small amount with large colon dz
    • large amount with small intestine dz/obstruction
  32. small intestine distention on rectal palpation
    pass NG tube to see if reflux
  33. cecal distention on rectal palpation
    firm or gas
  34. large colon distention on rectal palpation
    • firm to left- pelvic flexure impaction
    • ddx: gas, displacement, torsion, aboral obstruction
    • transient response to meds- refer immediatley
  35. small colon obstruction on rectal palpation
    • no feces present cannot feel anything
    • tug on band of cecum to see if painful
  36. abdominocentesis
    • 3 cm caudal to xyphoid process
    • clip, scrub, sterile prep
    • stab incision thru skin and body wall
    • urinary catheter inserted
    • fluid in and EDTA tube
    • do not do if referring, foal, severe distention
  37. normal/abnormal abdominocentesis
    • normal: TP <2.5g/dl, WBC <5000 cell/ul
    • abnormal: stanglulation= inc protein (1-2hr), yellow, RBC (3-4hr), orange, WBC inc (6hrs), lactate will be higher than peripheral blood
    • will not see changes with large colon volvulus bc dead in 4 hrs
  38. enterocentesis
    • surgical rupture of intestine
    • plant material, bacteria, no cells
    • ddx: rupture but would see neut, bac, no plant material
  39. Blood contamination during abdomenocentesis
    • blood from skin vesseles will spin out with centrifuge
    • freshblood will show platelets
    • spleen- PCV higher than peripheral
    • ddx: internal hemorrhage- hemolyzed and will not spin out, no platelets, erythrophagocytosis
  40. post op changes vs peritonitis
    • sx- inc TP and WBC
    • peritonitis- inc TP and WBC, fever, depression, anorexia, pain, degenerate neut
  41. endotoxin
    LPS from gram neg bac which is a potent activator of the immune system
  42. endotoxemia
    presence of LPS in the bloodstream resulting in clinical signs
  43. systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
    • general inflammatory response with 2 or more of following:
    • hypothermia or pyrexia
    • tachycardia
    • tachypnea or hypocapnea
    • WBC <5000/uL or >14,000/uL or >10% bands
  44. Sepsis, septic shock
    • sepsis- SIRS in response to infection
    • septic shock- persistant hypotension secondary to sepsis that fails to respond to fluid resuscitation
  45. multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)
    insufficiency of 2 or more organ systems, commonly a sequel to endotoxic or septic shock
  46. translocation of endotoxin from GI tract
    • Kupffer cells normally clear
    • dec clearance- hepatic dz
    • inc absorption- mucosal barrier compromise, trauma, malnutrition
  47. cellular interactions that help LPS
    • LPS binding protein- enhance phagocytosis by macs and neut
    • LPS binds to CD14 on neut
    • TLR4 transmits signal to interior of cell
    • signal causes phosphorylation and produces NFkb
    • NFkb enters nucleus promoting transcription of inflammatory mediators
    • also arachadonic acid metabolites
    • results in neutrophil activation- neutropenia
    • results in enothelial damage
  48. clinical effects of endotoxemia
    • acute, early hyperdynamic- anorexia, mild colic signs, sweating, tachycardia, "hot shock"
    • fever, toxic line
    • hypohynamic shock- dark mms, cold skin, ataxia, "cold endotoxemia"
    • organ failure- icterus, laminitis
    • leukopenia, inc PCV, azotemia
  49. tx endotoxemia
    • prevent further movement of endotoxin- remove nidus, binding agent
    • neutralization of cirulating endotoxin- plasma, polymyxin B
    • prevent prod and release of inf mediators- NSAIDs, DMSO, lidocaine
    • supportive care- fluids, inotropic agents, oncotic support, tx coagulopathy, nutrition
  50. puberty
    • age at which generative organs become functional and reproduction is possible
    • not same as sexual maturity
  51. factors influencing onset of puberty
    • age: cattle- 6-18mth, sm rum- 6-12mth, horse- 18mth, swine- 6mth
    • nutrition- good nut leads to reaching puberty earlier
    • season
    • climate- tropical temp reaches puberty earlier
    • disease- slows growth
  52. estrus, estrous, estrual
    • estrus- noun, heat
    • estrous- adjective, hot
    • estrual- adjective
    • an estrous female is in estrus.
  53. anestrus
    • without cyclicity
    • period of sexual quiescence- season, pregnancy, lactation, presence of offspring, pathology, stress, age
  54. photoperiod
    • mediated by pineal gland and its secretion of melatonin
    • long light breeder- summer- dec meleatonin- horse
    • short light breeder- late summer, early autumn, inc melatonin- sheep, goat
  55. temp effects on reproduction
    • excessive heat causes inc in early embryonic death and behavioral estrus is shorter
    • inc temp= dec DM intake= longer interval post partum anestrus
  56. interovulatory intervals
    • cow- 21d
    • sheep- 17d
    • goat- 21d
    • mare- 21d
    • sow- 21d
  57. phases of estrous cycle
    • follicular- estrogen
    • luteal- progesterone
    • anestrus
  58. length of estrus
    • cow- 12-18hr
    • mare- 3-10d
    • sow- 48-72hr
    • goat- 12-24hr
    • sheep- 24-36hr
  59. ovulation relative to estrus
    • cow- 12-18 hr after end
    • mare- 24-48hr before end
    • sow- 24-42hr after onset
    • goat- 12-24hr after onset
    • sheep- towards end
  60. diestrus length
    • cow- 16d
    • mare- 15d
    • sow- 14d
    • goat- 18d
    • sheep-12d
  61. signs of estrus in cow
    • primary- standing to be mounted
    • secondary- mounting others, clear mucus, hyperactivity, bellowing
  62. signs of estrus in ewe and doe
    • primary- stands for mounting
    • secondary- restless, tail switching, seeking male, vocalization
  63. signs of estrus in sow
    • primary- stand for mounting, response to pressure
    • secondary- anorexia, restlessness, salivation, grunting
  64. signs of strus in mare
    • almost none without male
    • tail elevation
    • winking of vulva
    • posturing
    • stands for mounting
  65. palpation findings in cow
    • estrus- cervix no change, tonic uterus, CL <1cm, follicle 1.5-2.5cm
    • diestrus- cervix no change, flaccid uterus, CL 3cm, follicles >1cm
  66. palpation findings in mare
    • estrus- relaxed cervix, flacid uterus, follicle >30mm
    • diestrus- tight cervix, tonic uterus, CL not palpable, follicles <30mm
  67. prostaglandin use in cow
    • tx btw 5 and 7 d, luteolysis, follicular maturation, estrus, ovulation btw 2 and 5 d after tx
    • tx after d 10 more likely to respond, estrus less synchronous
    • tx btw d 5 and 10 less likely to responde, more synchronous
    • if not working then prob acyclic
    • must have normal repro organs, non-preg, regular estrous cycles
    • double inj- 11 d apart, estrus 2-5d after inj
    • single inj- palpate CL and only tx these
  68. progestin use in cow
    • artificially prolong estrous cycle and abruptly stop to mimic luteal regression
    • norgestomet- implant SQ in ear, inj also
    • suppress estrus and ovulation for 9d
    • remove implant and estrus follows in 36-60hr
    • calf removal for 48hr at time of implant removal
  69. Ewe breeding
    • induce estrus during anestrous season- expose to 16hr/d of light during late winter and remove 60d before breeding
    • introduce ram in late summer- induced ovulation not with estrus, second ovulation is fertile
    • melatonin implants
  70. progestins in ewe
    • norgestomet- half implants, 1/8 inj, remove after 9-14d, estrus in 3d
    • oral (MGA), intravaginal (CIDR)
    • mimic luteal phase so no LH
  71. prostaglandin use in ewe
    double inj 9 days apart bc shorter time btw estrous cycles than cow
  72. progestin use in goat
    implants or intravaginal
  73. prostaglandin use in goat
    • effective only during normal breeding season
    • 2 doses at 10 d interval
  74. Mare breeding
    expose to 16 hr light per day- start in early Dec bc takes 6 to 8 wks
  75. progesterone use in mare
    • daily altrenogest for 10-15d to suppress LH
    • estrus 2-5d after stop altrenogest
    • more successful if mare follicle >20-25mm
    • "estrus suppression"
  76. domperidone use in mare
    one daily results in ovulation 12-22d after tx started
  77. induce ovulation in mare
    • hCG- 36 to 48 h
    • GnRH (desorelin)- 36-40 h
  78. prostaglandin use in mare
    • Cl must be mature/ >5d post ovulation
    • indications- shorter cycle, retained CL, term preg
    • lutalyse, estrumate
    • 2 inj 14-18 d apart
    • use with prog- altrenogest 8-14d then PGF, estrus in 2 to 5d
  79. sow breeding
    • expose to boar when approaching puberty to simulate follicular growth and reach first estrus sooner
    • relocate to breeding pen or mix groups to stimulate follicular growth
    • true lactational anestrus- follicular growth at weaning and estrus 4 to 9d after weaning
  80. prostaglandin use in sow
    CL not responsive until d 12-14 so not useful to synch
  81. progestin use in sow
    • altrenogest fed for 14-18d
    • withdraw and estrus in 2d
    • not approved in US
  82. PGF
    regresses CL
  83. progestins
    • inhibit LH
    • block ovulation
    • inhibit behavioral estrus
  84. hCG/LH
    • stimulate follicular growth
    • oocyte maturation
  85. FSH/eCG
    • stimulate follicular recruitment and growth
    • except in mare
  86. estrogens
    • stimulate behavioral estrus
    • luteolytic in cow
    • luteotropic in sow (CL will persist longer)
    • supress follicular growth- mare
  87. advantages of AI
    • utilize superior sires
    • easy to ship semen
    • males more carefully selected
    • danger and expense of maintaining male is eliminated
    • less chance of venereal dz
  88. disadvantages of AI
    • trained techs required
    • rapid spread of genetic abnormalities
    • narrowing of genetic base
  89. semen storage
    • frozen in liquid nitrogen
    • tank should contain several inches of nitrogen
    • canisters never raised above neck of refigerator
    • select semen package in 9-15 sec
  90. bovine collection of semen
    • AI
    • electro-ejaculation
  91. bovine AI insemination
    semen deposited in uterine body
  92. sheep AI
    • not widely used
    • laparoscopic with smen deposited into uterine lumen
    • male- small vol
  93. goat AI
    • restrain doe with hindquarters elevated
    • male- small vol
  94. horse semen packaging
    • fresh- mare inseminated soon after collection
    • chilled- extended, inseminated within 24 hrs
    • frozen- inseminate within 6-8hrs of ovulation
  95. horse collection of semen and insemination
    • artificial vagina- mare in estrus, phantom
    • extenders- 4:1
    • dose- 500,000,000 progressively motile
    • want to inseminate 48hr prior to ovulation so AI on alternate days during estrus- in uterine body
  96. porcine semen collection and AI
    • fresh or frozen
    • phantom, gloved hand, AV
    • must have min vol of 50 ml with 1 billion motile
    • inseminate 24-30hr after onset estrus
    • pipettes with counterclockwise spiral for sow cervix
  97. bovine recognition of pregnancy
    • trophoblast elongates and fills both horns
    • 15-17d after mating
    • luteotrophic substance released by embryo to prevent PGF and CL is maintained
  98. small rum recognition of pregnancy
    day 15
  99. equine recognition of pregnancy
    • embryo mobile thru both horns to block PGF
    • fixation day 15-17
    • twins must be reduced prior to day 40
  100. porcine recognition of prenancy
    • day 13
    • estradiol produced by blastocyst suspends luteolysis
    • PGF produced but sequestered in uterine horn
    • at least 4 live embryos are required to maintain pregnancy until day 40
    • elongation of trophoblast
  101. length of pregnancy
    • cow: 273-296 d (fetal giantism in some breeds)
    • ewe: 140-155 d (Veratrum californicum on 14th d results in cyclopse and prolong gest.)
    • doe: 148-156
    • mare: 340-342 d (prolonged gest. normal)
    • sow: 114 d
  102. CL during pregnancy
    • cow: CL fxn to provide prog, prior to day 200 abort with PGF, after use dex and PGF to abort
    • ewe: CL until day 50 then placenta secretes prog
    • doe: CL dependent to supply prog
    • mare: CL provides prog initially, supp CL after day 40, fetal prog by day 100
    • sow: CL dependent for prog
  103. pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation of bovine
    • amniotic vesicle: 30-65d
    • fetal membrane slip: 35-90d
    • fetus: 65-70d
    • placentomes: 85d
    • contributory signs- fremitus of middle uterine artery
  104. staging bovine pregnancy
    • mouse- 2mth
    • rat- 3mth
    • small cat- 4mth
    • large cat- 5mth
    • beagle- 6mth
  105. lab methods of preg diagnosis in bovine
    low prog at 20-24d after breeding in cow returing to estrus and not preg
  106. electronic method of preg diagnosis in bovine
    ultrasound- day 25, fetal sexing 55-75d
  107. pregnanacy diagnosis in ewe
    • return to estrus
    • abdominal ballottment- d 90-130
    • ultrasound- d 40, real time
    • doppler- detect placental blood flow/heartbeat
    • rads
  108. pregnancy diagnosis in doe
    • return to estrus in 21 d
    • ab ballottment
    • real time ultrasound
    • doppler
    • rads
    • elevated prog at d 20 suggests preg
    • detect estrone sulfate in blood (made by fetus)
  109. preganacy diagnosis via rectal palpation of mare
    • day 17-21: inc uterine tone, cervix firm
    • day 35: fetal bulge 3-4cm
    • day 42: fetal bulge 5-7cm
    • day 60: fetal bulge 8-10cm (football size)
    • day 90: soccer ball size
  110. lab methods of preg diagnosis in mare
    • endometrial cups day 40-150, highest eCG day 60- persist even if aborted
    • high estrogen if preg after day 75
  111. electronic preg diagnosis in mare
    real time ultrasound- examine d 16 so can rebreed if not preg
  112. electronic method of preg diagnosis in sow
    • amplitude depth- d 30 to 45, tissue density and fluid density
    • real time ultrasound
  113. post partum re-breeding of cow
    best results at 40-60d
  114. cystic ovarian dz in cow (COD)
    • due to failure of ovulation
    • >25m
    • thin wall
    • single or multiple
    • one or both varies
    • luteinized cysts are thicker walled
    • ?inadequate LH, dysfxn, inc stress, hereditary
    • anestrous mostly, can have frequent estrus
    • tx- spontaneous regression, LH/hCG, GnRH (try 1st)
    • estrus 3 wk after tx or give PGF 9 days later to reduce from 3wk to 12d
  115. freemartin
    • co-twin to a male
    • anastomosis btw placental vessels
    • underdev
    • no communication btw vagina and uterus
    • karyotype, rectal palpation, 90% born co-twin
  116. ovarian hypoplasia
    small repro tract
  117. segmental aplasia in cow
    • white heifer dz
    • cranial genital tract normal
    • caudal uterine horns aplastic
    • no drainage thru cervix so secretions accumulate in horns
    • no signs of pregnancy
  118. intersex in does
    • dairy breeds
    • polled goats
  119. hydrometra in doe
    • clear fluid in uterus
    • persistant CL
    • expelled at d 50- cloudburst
    • tx- PGF
  120. prolonged estrus in mare
    • common in spring
    • may respond to male for 30d
  121. prolonged diestrus in mare
    • persistant CL secretes prog
    • tx- pGF
  122. neoplasia in mare affecting repro
    • granulaosa-thecal cell tumor
    • secretes inhibin adn testosterone- no FSH and gt ovary atrophy
    • benign
    • abnormal estrous cycle, stallion like behavior
  123. endometrial cysts in mare
    • block embryo migration
    • older mares
    • ddx: amniotic vessicle (grows faster than cyst)
  124. vulvar abnormalities in mare
    • failure of vulva to close leads to pneumovagina and infertility
    • vaginitis, cervicitis, andometritis
    • "wind sucking"
    • tx- caslick
  125. sow repro problem
    • seasonal infertility- summer anestrus
    • 5-10% abnormal tracts- segmental aplasia, abnormal vulva
    • cystic ovaries
    • post partum anestrus for gilts
    • anestrus if housed alone
  126. Trichomoniasis
    • early abortions (17d- 5mth)
    • repeat breeding
    • long calving season
    • no signs in bull- lesionless carrier (older bulls more likely affected bc epithelial crypts in prepuce)
    • dx- culture of vaginal mucus/preputial smegma (diamond's media)
    • survives freezing
    • female infected at breeding
    • vacc prior to breeding
  127. Campylobacteriosis
    • C. fetus ss. venerealis
    • early abortions (4-7mth)
    • repeat breeding
    • long claving season
    • dx- culture aborted fetus lung, liver, abomasal content- culture female tract- culture preputial smegma (clarks media)
    • some chronic carrier cows
    • bulls- leasionless carrier (older bulls more likely affected)
    • vacc prior to breeding
  128. Ulcerative dermatosis
    • pizzle rot in sm rum
    • 1. ulcers around mouth, nose and legs
    • 2. venereal dz
    • parapoxvirus
    • ulcers covered by scabs
    • ddx: contagious ecthyma (orf)
  129. Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
    • reportable in US
    • rapidly spreading venereal dz
    • Taylorella equigenitalis- gram neg
    • copious vaginal discharge within a few days after breeding
    • dec fertility
    • stallion- lesionless carrier
    • dx- culture (Amies charcoal)
    • tx- Ab uterine infusion, clitorectomy, topical Ab on penis
  130. Coital exanthema
    • equine herpesvirus 3
    • venereal
    • no abortion
    • no affect on fertility
    • small raised papules/pustules/ulcers on vestibular mucosa, vulva, and perineum of mares or penis of stallions
    • spontaneously heal in 2 wk
    • may depress libido
  131. pseudomonas and klebsiella
    • P- in water
    • K- in soil
    • usually not pathogenic forms
    • culture
  132. Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)
    • systmeic illenss- fever, leukopenia, edema, stiffness, nasal discharge, skin rash, abortion
    • high percent Standardbreds
    • stallions can be chronic shedders
    • dx- serology, culture semen, test breeding
    • vacc- vacc induced Ab
  133. Brucellosis
    • purulent metritis and cervicitis in sows
    • early embryonic death
    • orchitis/epididymitis in boars
    • Brucella suis
    • dx- serology, culture
    • tx- slaughter
  134. nonvenereal infectious infertility
    • most ascending
    • vaginitis, cervicitis, retained placenta, trauma from dystocia
    • dx- culture, cytology, biopsy, ultrasound
    • tx- Ab, lavage, prostaglandins
  135. bovine nonvenereal infectious infertility causes
    • Actinomyces pyogens
    • tx- penicillin
  136. Equine nonvenereal infectious infertility causes
    • Strep. zooemidemicus
    • E. coli
    • Pseudomonas
    • Klebsiella
    • Candida
    • Aspergillus
    • tx- penicillin
  137. Porcine Nonvenereal infectious infertility
    • SMEDI (porcine parvo, PRRS, psuedorabies)
    • lepto
    • erysipelothrix
    • toxoplasmosis
    • actinomyces
    • aspergillus
    • salmonella
  138. indications for eval of male
    • prior to sale
    • prior to breeding
    • id and diagnose infertility
    • large testes and >70% normal sperm results in preg rates inc >7%
  139. Breeding Soundness Exam
    • Hx
    • ID
    • PE
    • Genital exam
    • observe sexual behavior if possible
    • semen collection
    • semen eval
    • interpretation of findins
  140. Bull semen eval- motility
    • very good- vigorous swirls
    • good- slow swirls and eddies
    • fair- no waves of mevement, cells moving
    • poor- very slow, erratic motion
  141. Bull semen eval- morphology
    • primary- major- serious effects on fertility
    • secondary- minor- less likely to affect fertility
    • tertiary- iatrogenic
  142. Bull minimum scrotal circumference
    • <15mth= 30cm
    • >24mth= 34cm
  143. Bull guidelines for progressive motlity
    • very good >70%
    • good 50-69%
    • fair 30-49%
    • poor <30%
  144. Min guidelines for bull BSE
    • min 30 cm scrotal circumference
    • fair gross motility
    • min 30% individual motility
    • 70%normal morphology
  145. Satisfactory Potential Breeder
    • bull
    • equals or surpasses all min thresholds
    • no evidence of breeding related abnormalities
  146. Unsatisfactory Potential Breeder
    • bull
    • below one or more min thresholds
    • genetic faults
    • irreversible physical abnormalities
  147. Classified Deferred
    • bull
    • does not fit satisfactory or unsatisfactory categories
    • likely to show improvement (immature yearling, unobtaineable ejaculate, treatable physical defect)
    • re-examine later
  148. Buck semen eval
    • vol- 0.5-1ml
    • gross motility- rapidly swirling
    • individual motility >75%
    • morphology >75%
  149. Ram PE for BSE
    • BCS 1 or2- questionable
    • BCS 3 or 4- satisfactory
    • BCS 5- questionable
    • no abnormalities (post-legged, foot rot, foot abscess)
  150. Ram BSE classifications
    • excellent- SC >35cm, otility >50%, normal 90%, can breed at least 100 ewes in 60d
    • satisfactory- SC>33cm, motility >30%, normal >70%, can breed at least 50 ewes in 60d
    • questionable
    • unsatisfactory
    • cull, tx, or retest Q & U
  151. Stallion BSE
    • min 8cm scrotal width
    • achieve preg rate >75%
  152. Stallion BSE classification
    • satisfactory- no significant abnormalities
    • two ejaculates, 1 hr part- 1 billion PMMN sperm in 2nd, 60% progressive motility and normal morphology
    • questionable- borderline in 2 or more criteria
    • unsatisfactory- very low in 2 or more criteria, physical shortcomings, heritable defects
  153. Boar PE for BSE
    • lameness is major cause of dec breeding performance
    • check preputial diverticulum
  154. Boar semen eval
    • largest semen vol of all species
    • motility 70-90%
    • morphology >85%
  155. embryonic mortality
    death of conceptus before completion of organogenesis
  156. fetal mortality
    • in utero death after organogenesis
    • before expulsion or extraction from dam
  157. neonatal mortality
    death within 28 d of birth
  158. perinatal mortality
    includes fetal and neonatal deaths
  159. abortion
    expulsion of conceptus incapable of independent life
  160. premature delivery
    expulsion of viable fetus before full term
  161. dysmaturity
    neonate small and immature for gestational age
  162. congenital
    defects or infections present at birth or abortion
  163. major causes of perinatal mortality in calves
    • dairy- dystocia, diarrhea, pneumonia
    • beef- hypoxia, injury
  164. major causes of perinatal mortality in piglets
    • mortality inc as litter size inc and birth wt dec
    • env and nutritional
  165. major causes of perinatal mortality in lambs
    env and nutrition
  166. major causes of perinatal mortality in foals
    • 2% of Thoroughbreds
    • spesis
  167. incidence of embryonic mortality
    • high in domestic animals
    • embryo reabsorbed so rarely observed
  168. abortion stats
    • early abortions usually not observed
    • fetus dies in utero and expelled within 24-72h with varying degrees of autolysis (6-12h cloudy cornea, 24h soft kidney, 36-96h color changes in skin)
    • <50% diagnosed definitively
  169. Placentitis
    • most common lesion with infectious abortion
    • acute- invade placentomes- hyperemia- necrosis- fetal invasion
    • chronic- periphery of placentome- thickening of chorioallantois- separation of affected cotyledons
  170. placental invasion route
    • hematogenous- brucellosis, listeria, lepto
    • extension from uterus- toxoplasmosis, campylobacter fetus, actinomyces pyogens
    • ascending from vagina
  171. fetal invasion
    • directly- umbilical vein
    • indirectly- amniotic fluid (inhalation, ingestion, skin)
  172. common signs of inrauterine infection
    • edema
    • fetal autolysis
    • but these are non-specific
  173. microscopic lesions associated with intrauterine infection
    fetal liver, lung, intestine, placenta
  174. diagnosing abortion
    • all considered infectious until proven otherwise
    • tx as herd problem
    • separate leak proof containers
    • chilled not frozen
    • submit intact abomasum, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, adrenal glands, placenta
    • organs in 10% formalin
    • swabs less desirable
    • badly decomposed- brain contents, uterine swabs
    • serology- least informative, serum from dam at abortion and 2-3wks after (compare with histo, micro, and cytologic data)
  175. Leptospirosis abortions in pig
    • most common
    • L. pomona
    • 2-3 wks until term
    • infection persists for 6mth-1yr
    • dx- not all fetuses have organism, sow Ab present at abortion
  176. Brucellosis abortions in pig
    • Brucella suis
    • venereal dz (unlike cattle which is via ingestion)
    • boars- infected for life
    • no vacc
    • abortion at all stages
    • zoonotic
  177. viral infertility and abortion on pigs
    • PPV
    • porcine enterovirus
    • psuedorabies virus
    • hog cholera
    • PPRS
    • virus crosses placenta and kills conceptus before maternal recognition (d 11-12)
    • <35 d- skeletal mineralization so irregular return to heat
    • >35 d- fetal mummification, all die or if 2 or more survive then normal gestation
    • >70 d- fetal Ab, may survive, born weak
  178. IBR
    • bovine abortion
    • abortion storms
    • major viral cause in US
    • fetal lesions- inclusion bodies
  179. Leptospirosis
    • bovine abortion
    • abortion in last 2 mths
    • dx- lepto in placenta, fetus, cow's urine
  180. Brucellosis
    • bovine abortion
    • retained fetal membranes (RFM)- discharge highly infectious
  181. Campylobacter fetus
    • ovine abortion
    • major bacterial cause
  182. EAE- Chlamydophila abortus
    • ovine abortion
    • late abortion
  183. Toxoplasmosis- Toxoplasma gondii
    • ovine abortion
    • placental lesions- specific cotyledonitis "pepperoni pizza placenta"
  184. Rhinopneumonitis
    • EHV-1
    • equine abortion
    • most common infectious late cause
    • last trimester
    • highly contagious
    • fetal lesion- fresh fetus, hepatic intranuclear inclusion bodies
  185. Streptococcus zooepidemicus
    • equine abortion
    • most common bacterial cause
  186. signs of approaching parturition
    • segregation
    • loss of appestite
    • anxiety
    • restlessness
  187. signs of approaching parturition in a cow
    • udder dev- heifers at 4mth, pluriparous at 2-3wks
    • relaxation of pelvic lig- raised tail head
    • flaccid edematous vulva
    • tenacious mucus discharge- cervical plug softens at 7mth
    • anorexia and restlessness- few hr prior to calving
    • similar in ewes and does- less udder dev
  188. signs of approaching parturition in mare
    • udder dev- primiparous at 3-6wk, pluriparous at 2-4 wk, waxing of colostrum at 24-48hr
    • relaxation of pelvic lig
    • vulva becomes edematous
    • most foal at night
    • mare able to exercise come control- disturbances may delay
  189. signs of approaching parturition in sow
    • mammary glands- firm 1-3d prior, secretions 48h prior
    • nest building
    • vulvar swelling- 3-4d prior
  190. First stage of labor
    • relaxation of cervix and myometrial contractions
    • cow 6-12hr
    • ewe and doe 6-12hr
    • mare 1-4hr
    • sow 2-12hr
  191. Second stage of labor
    • expulsion of fetus
    • rupture of chrioallantois
    • uterine contractions inc
    • fetus enters birth canal- ferguson's reflex
    • cow: primiparous 4hr, pluriparous 1-2hr
    • ewe and doe: 0.5-2hr, twins longer
    • mare: 5-40 min, intact amnion, mare remains recumbent 15-30min
    • sow: 30min-10hr, longest interval btw 1&2 and last
  192. Third stage of labor
    • expulsion of fetal membranes
    • cow 0.5-8hr, pathologic 12hr, uterine involution 60d
    • ewe and doe 0.5-4hr, uterine involution 30d
    • sow 2-3 intervals during parturition
    • mare 0.5-3hr, pathologic after 4hr, uterine involution 14d
  193. dystocia
    • maternal 25%
    • fetal 75%
    • more common in primipara
  194. hereditary causes of dystocia
    • rectovaginal constriction
    • multiple fetuses
    • prolonged gestation
    • hydrops
    • hydrocephalus
    • double muscling
  195. nutritional and management causes of dystocia
    • small dam
    • overnutrition- fat deposits
    • lack of exercise- uterine inertia
  196. causes of dystocia
    • hereditary
    • uterine torsion
    • uterine inertia
    • trauma
    • nutrition and management
    • fetal monsters
    • fetopelvic disproportion
  197. Uterine inertia
    • primary- cow and sow, lack of oxytocin or response by uterus
    • secondary- all species, peritonitis, sepsis, complication of prolonged dystocia
  198. clinical approach to dystocia
    • Hx- breeding date, parity, duration of labor
    • unusual symptoms
    • restraint
    • general exam of dam
  199. fetal survival during dystocia
    • cow 8-12hr after onset stage 2
    • ewe and doe 8-12hr after onset stage 2, poor dam survival
    • mare 30-40min after onset stage 2, mare survival poor
    • sow 1st fetus dies after 6hr, all dead after 24-36hr
  200. repro exam of fetus during dystocia
    • withdrawal reflex
    • corneal reflex
    • suckling reflex
    • anal sphincter reflex
    • pulse
    • cloudy cornea 8-12h
    • hair comes of 24-48hr
    • emphysema 24-48h
  201. presentation during dystocia
    • relation of spinal axis of fetus to dam
    • longitudinal (cranial/caudal) vs transverse (dorsal/ventral)
  202. position
    • relation of dorsum of fetus to quadrants of maternal pelvis
    • dorsosacral- ideal
    • dorsopubic
    • dorsoiliac
  203. posture
    • relation of extremities (head, neck, limbs) to fetus
    • flexed or extended
  204. how to tell front limb from hind limb
    • forelimb- three joints
    • hindlimb- two joints
  205. mutation
    operations that retuen fetus to normal PPP
  206. repulsion
    pushing fetus out of pelvis or birth canal
  207. rotation
    turning fetus on its long axis
  208. version
    turning fetus on its transverse axis
  209. forced extraction
    withdrawal of fetus by outside force or traction
  210. fetotomy
    operations to reduce the size of the fetus
  211. shistosomas reflexus
    fetal monster with severe ventral curvature of spine and incomplete closure of abdominal wall
  212. epidural during dystocia
    use judiciously bc interferes with dams ability to help expel fetus
  213. anterior presentation of cow
    • commonly mishandled with too much traction
    • loop chain above fetlock and around pastern, dorsal surface
    • extraction possible if extend 10cm beyond vulva
    • put cow in right lateral
    • only pulls when cow strains
    • rotate fetus 90 degrees when thorax is extracted
  214. posterior presentation of cow
    • fetus can die quickly
    • cow in right lateral
    • rotate fetus 90 degrees immediately
    • hips delivered then rotate back
  215. true breech
    • posterior longitudinal
    • dorsosacral
    • hips flexed
    • limbs extended under abdomen
    • inadequate dilation of birth canal
  216. fetotomy contraindications
    • inadequate size of birth canal
    • severly emphysematous fetus
    • uterine rupture
  217. induced parturition in cow, sheep, goat
    • limited indications
    • corticosteroids and PGF
  218. induced parturition in mare
    • only for medical condition like premature placental separation
    • rupture of prepubic tendon
    • attended foaling required (prevent nursing)
    • not for convenience
    • not for prolonged gestation
    • 330d
    • colostrum in udder
    • relaxation of lig
    • cervical relaxation
    • oxytocin (not labeled dose)
  219. induced parturition in sow
    • management tool
    • PGF on d 111 or 112
    • oxytocin 20hr after PGF
  220. neonatal care
    • colostrum intake 1-2h after birth
    • IgG dec by 33% in 6hr, dec by 66% in 24hr
    • calves ingesting E. coli prior to colostrum closes gut and prevents absorption of Abs
    • should consume 6-10% of body wt in first 24hrs
  221. first postpartum ovulation in dairy cow
    • 20 d postpartum
    • silent estrus bc no prog
    • delay of ovulation bc neg energy balance
  222. first post partum ovulation in beef cow
    • 40-60d post partum
    • nursing blocks LH
    • wean at 205d
  223. first post partum ovulation in ewe and doe
    • 6mth post partum
    • seasonal influence- anestrus in spring
  224. first post partum ovulation in mare
    • foal heat 5-12d post partum
    • best results if over 10d PP bc uterine involution takes 10-14d
  225. first post partum ovulation in sows
    • true lactational anestrus
    • behavioral estrus 1-5d post partum but no ovulation
    • ovulation interval inversely proportional to length of lactation
    • group weaning to synch
    • post weaning anestrus in summer
  226. retained placenta in cow
    • 5-10% in dairy
    • 1% in beef
    • twins, short/long gestation, abortion after 5mth, dystocia, vit deficiency, uterine inertia, hot weather
    • retained in gravid uterine horn
    • malodorous
    • expelled after necrosis and sloughing of caruncles in 4-10d
    • tx- no manual removal, oxytocin if <24hr or PGF?, no tx and just monitor, Ab
    • prognosis good without metritis
  227. retained placenta in ewe and doe
    • uncommon
    • dystocia, retained fetus, Se deficiency
    • septic metritis
    • tx- oxytocin, Ab, tetnus, supportive
  228. retained placenta in mare
    • tip of nongravid horn
    • dystocia, cesarean, uterine inertia
    • septic metritis
    • tx- no manual removal, oxytocin, Ab, NSAIDs, tetanus, PGF, burns technique
    • prognosis fair to good without complications
  229. retained placenta in sow
    • uncommon
    • dystocia
    • tx- oxytocin, Ab, supportive
  230. postpartum uterine infections in cow
    Actinomyces pyogens- most common, white pus, unsanitary env, tx penicillin and PGF and Ab and lavage
  231. traumatic injuries postpartum
    • forced extraction
    • manual placental removal
    • sontaneous resolution, tx oxytocin
    • middle uterine artery rupture
    • laceration
    • hematomas
    • paralysis
    • uterine rupture
  232. uterine prolapse
    • most common in cow
    • clean, elevate pelvic brim
    • tx- reduce edema, replace bottom and sides first, oxytocin, amputation
Card Set
LA Med 1
LA Med 1