1. anatomy
    • studies the structure of the body parts
  2. physiology
    studies the function of the body parts
  3. gross anatomy
    study of body parts visible to the naked eye
  4. microscopic anatomy
    structures too small to be seen by the naked eye
  5. developmental anatomy
    traces structural changes in the body throughout life
  6. pathological anatomy
    the study of diseased organs
  7. radiographic anatomy
    to use x-rays to study organs
  8. chemical level
    the study of the atoms that form molecules
  9. (cellular) cell level
    the study of cells
  10. tissue level
    groups of cells that have the same function
  11. organ level
    structure composed of two or more tissues that have the same function
  12. organ system level
    organs that work together for a common purpose
  13. organismal level
    the living human body
  14. maintaining boundaries
    to keep its internal environment seperate from is external -cell membrane and integumentary system
  15. movement
    to move the body- muscular system
  16. responsiveness
    the ability to sense changes in the environment and then to respond to them- nervous system
  17. digestion
    breaking down foodstuffs to simple molecules-digestive system
  18. metabolism
    all the chemical reactions that occur within body cells-endocrine system
  19. excretion
    removing wastes from the body- digestive urinary and reproductive
  20. reproduction
    reproduces at the cellular or organismal level- reproductive system
  21. growth
    increase in body cells or the organism- all cells
  22. nutrients
    carbohydrates (energy source), proteins (building cell structures), fats (cushion body organs and provide source of energy), vitamins and mineral (for chemical reactions)
  23. oxygen
    needed for all chemical reactions in the body
  24. water
    60-80% of body weight, provides the watery environment needed for chemical reactions
  25. maintenance of body temp
    chemical reactions can only continue at a very narrow temp range
  26. atmospheric pressure
    needed for breathing and gas exchange
  27. homeostatic control mechanism
    the ability of the body to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes constantly
  28. receptor
    the sensor that monitors the environment
  29. control effector
    determines the set point
  30. effector
    the response to the stimulus
  31. negative feedback
    the output response is the opposite of the stimulus
  32. positive feedback
    the output response is the same as the stimulus
  33. homeostatic imbalance
    a disturbance in homeostasis, results in disease
  34. anatomical position
    the body is erect with the feet slightly apart and the palms facing forward.
  35. axial
    the part of the body that makes up the axis including the head,neck and trunk
  36. appendicular
    the extremitiesand the shoulder and hip girdle
  37. superior/inferior
    • superior- toward the head
    • inferior- toward the feet
  38. anterior/posterior
    • anterior- toward the front of body
    • posterior- toward the back

  39. medial/lateral
    • medial-closer to the midline
    • lateral- closer to the outside
  40. proximal/distal
    • proximal- closer the point of attachment
    • distal- further from the point of attatchment
  41. superficial/deep
    • superficial-toward the body surface
    • deep- away from the body surface
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