EMS Brain/Mind States

  1. Syncope (SING-cuh-pee)
    Loss of consciousness
  2. Glasgow Coma Scale
    • Eye opening:
    • Spontaneously 4
    • To speech 3
    • To Pain 2
    • None 1
    • ----------------------------
    • Verbal Response:
    • Orientated 5
    • Confused 4
    • Inappropriate 3
    • Incomprehensible 2
    • None 1
    • ----------------------------
    • Motor Response
    • Obeys commands 6
    • Localises to pain 5
    • Withdraws from pain 4
    • Flexion to pain 3
    • Extension to pain 2
    • None 1
    • ----------------------------
    • Total Possible Score: 15
  3. Epilepsy
    Brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain activity that cause changes in attention or behavior.
  4. Cushing's Triad
    Three signs indicative of increased intracranial pressure: increased blood pressure, decreased pulse, and abnormal respirations.
  5. Concussion
    A traumatic brain injury (TBI) that may result in a bad headache, altered levels of alertness, or unconsciousness.It temporarily interferes with the way your brain works, and it can affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns.

    Symptoms: Altered level of consciousness (drowsy, hard to arouse, or similar changes); Confusion, feeling spacey, or not thinking straight; Headache; Loss of consciousness; Memory loss (amnesia) of events before the injury or immediately after; Nausea and vomiting; Seeing flashing lights; Feeling like you have "lost time"

    Medical Emergency: Changes in alertness and consciousness; Convulsions (seizures); Muscle weakness on one or both sides; Persistent confusion; Persistent unconsciousness (coma); Repeated vomiting; Unequal pupils; Unusual eye movements; Walking problems
  6. Altered Mental Status
    Appearing abnormally sleepy, confused, violent, or even completely unresponsive; change in alertness and awareness; a change in a patient's cognitive behavior that may appear unusual to bystandards, family, and/or friends.
  7. Raccoon Eyes
    (Periorbital Ecchymosis)
    Bruising under the eyes that may indicate skull fracture.
  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Produced by the brain, this fluid protects the brain and spinal cord against impact. It is clear and colorless, circulates throughout the skull and spinal column, and is reabsorbed by the circulatory system. The fluid not only cushions and protects but also performs a function similar to lymph fluid in combating infection and cleansing the brain and spinal cord. When both the skull and the membrane surrounding the brain are broken, the fluid leaks out, often through the nose and/or ears—a classic sign of basilar skull fracture.
  9. Open Head Injury
    If the scalp is lacerated and the bones of the cranium are fractured, the patient has an open head injury.
  10. P.E.R.R.L.
    Mnemonic used to evaluate a patient's pupils.

    • Pupils
    • Equal
    • Round
    • Reactive
    • Light
Card Set
EMS Brain/Mind States
EMS Mental and/or Brain Related Emergency