1. Empirical
    • Empirical-facts about the world (what IS)
    • Legal- laws, codes regulations (what IS---IS does not equal OUGHT ex: slavery used to be legal)
    • Ethical-positions, arguments, etc.(what SHOULD be)/will not get 1 answer, must be consistent)
  2. BLUM

    -psych and historical aspects of racism
    • antiracism-counter attitudes of superiority that seek to perpetuate unjustified advantages of one group over another
    • -3 components: belief in equal worth of all persons regardless of race, understand racism (psych. and historical), and avoid racism and ensure it doesn't manifest in society
    • psych. & historical aspects of racism-psych: stereotyping, scapegoating/ hist: slavery, colonialism
    • Multiculturalism- affirm one's own culture, respect/understand other cultures, and value cultural adversity
  3. Moral Relativism
    what's right is relative to context

    OPPOSITE OF UTILITARIANISM- "When in Rome, do as the Romans do."
  4. Essentialism
    a characteristic is essentially a part of someone because of a trait

    EX: All _____s like ________. All ________s do this. ("All rednecks like country music.")
  5. Nussbaum

    -Fauziya example
    -why FGM is disanalagous to circumcision
    -3 types of FGM
    -Harms of FGM
    -4 criticisms
    -not analagous to circumcision because circumcision believed to have little to no effect on male's lives/entire penis is not cut off

    -3 types (clitoridectomy-remove all/part of clitoris---Excision- remove all or part of clitoris and inner lips---Infibulation-most of vag removed and urethra stitched

    -Harms-many! (EX: infertility, issues w/childbirth, PTSD, difficulty menstruating, kidney stones)

    -Criticisms-can't criticize 1 culture w/o looking @ own/must eradicate practice in own culture/on par w/dieting/involves a loss that may not be central to all female Westerner's-fixation inappropriate (WRONG-It's about consent/choice)

    • -Tell what we should/should not do
    • -Do not answer "WHY"-Unethical arguments
    • -Must step outside of them and bring in other arguments to solve and prove
  7. Consquentialism
    assume you can control consequences of your actions and that you have knoweldge of those consequences
  8. Teleology
    concerned w/ the consequences of an act
  9. Utilitarianism-- "THE OVERARCHING PRINCIPLE"
    An act is right if it maximizes overall good and minimizes overall harm

    • -a form of consequentialism
    • ex: building stadium, food bank, or library-Strong: food bank (feed)/ Weak: stadium (revenue-not immediate help for hungry)
  10. The HIGHEST Value!
  11. Deontology/Kant
    • act is right if it follows the CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE (UNIVERSILIZATION & MEANS/END)
    • -Universalization- can be applied to all
    • -Means/End-act always to treat others as ends in themselves and not MERELY as a means to an end
    • -LIE= UNACCEPTABLE (use persons as means to an end, undermine their intelligence)
    • DEFICIENCY--VIRTUE--EXCESS ------> cowardice, courage, foolhardy ----->pride, modesty.humility
    • -virtue = Golden Mean (Aristotle): virtuous course between deficiency and excess/OPPOSITE=vice
    • -prescriptions and prohibitions -what to do and what not to do (EX: v=honesty/presc.: tell truth--vice: dishon./proh.: don't lie)
    • -agent centered
    • -4 cardinal virtues: temperance, justice, courage, wisdom

    -Differences in Amy and Jake's responses
    -Ethic of care vs. logic approach
    • -AMY: ----ETHIC OF CARE: relationships, communication, connection, not individualistic, not focused on rights
    • -JAKE:---- LOGIC OF JUSTICE: rights, heirarchical, logical, Kohlberg scale, individualistic
    • Positive right-given directly or given access to exercise that right (often by gvt.) ex: healthcare in Canada, elementry ed. in U.S.
    • Negative right-Not given or guaranteed access but no one can interfere (ex: healthcare in U.S./College ed. in U.S.)--dependent on resources $$
    • Human/Moral right- every human given by virtue of being human
    • Civil right- right for citizens
  15. Values-impt. to ETHICS, used all of the time

    • Care-special duties to people in need/in relationship to you
    • Autonomy-ability to make own choice (taken from criminals)
    • Responsibility-being held accountable
    • Empathy
    • Community-owe back to comm. because it helps make you
    • Justice-when one gets his or her due
  16. BOLTE
    • Marriage def.-monogamous, in love, man and woman, procreation
    • -"natural objection"-sodomy not normal way to use human organs
    • -SSM vs. Civil Unions- CU's not recognized in all states, limited benefits
    Your liberty (autonomy) can be restricted when you risk harm to others (or are suicidal)
  18. JORDAN

    -moral impasse
    -public dilemma
    -resolution by declaration
    -resolution by accomodation
    • -moral impasse-conflicting claims (PAST: divorce, interracial relationships/ PRES: abortion, smoking, SSM)
    • -public dilemma-moral impasse located in public square
    • -resolution by declaration-gvt. chooses side
    • -resolution by accomodation-gvt. tries to give as much as possible to both sides
    • -objections-faulty analogy to mixed marriage because mm not public dilemma (false-it was! state sanctioned since it discriminated against people)/What if people born that way? Don't have to act upon biological compulsion--compares to pyros)/Would violate religions--all sins equal, people sin everyday
  19. FILM: "Colors Between Black and White"

    • -fit-fertile
    • -phenotype-things we see ( ex: hair texture)-race not merely pheno./can't seperate people based on looks alone, people look same
    • -species-based on possibility of reproduction
  20. ZACK

    -race as social construction
    -epistemology of racial sorting
    -2 paradigms of race
    -def. of racism
    -how we rid ourselves of false notions
    • -race as social construction-anything the result of human interaction & intention in contexts where past actions have present consequences
    • -epistemology of racial sorting-study of knowledge, black=1 black ancestor/white=no non-white ancestors, white appearance, asian=ancestors from "asian" country
    • -2 paradigms of race- 1) heirarchical taxonomies that put whites at top/2) white supremacists have now been challenged (cultural domination)
    • -def. of racism-fundamental denial of moral equality based on race/intentional & institutional/indiv. and social preferences and aversions based on diff. racial identities
    • -how we rid ourselves of false notions-dissimenate knowledge, relearn/redo
  21. McINTOSH

    -def. of "white privilege"
    -ex. of white privilege
    -white priv. and myth of meritocracy
    • -def. of "white privilege"-invisible package of unearned assets which whites can cash in daily
    • -ex. of white privilege-police/IRS audits (not due to race), don't have to educate kids about racism, etc.
    • -white priv. and myth of meritocracy- meritocracy=earned/white priv.=unearned
  22. Zero Sum Game
    finite # of resources, someone's loss=another's gain
  23. Disparate Treatment & Disparate Impact
    Disparate Treatment- ILLEGAL, people treated diff. based on gender/race, not as common now (EX: saying no to men applying to nursing program

    Disparate Impact- NOT ILLEGAL, population of org. does not match pop. %s
  24. Definition of AA
    giving preferential treatment to QUALIFIED underrepresented candidate
  25. Why reparations not form of AA
    Reparations repayment for PAST harm, AA addresses present disparate impact NOT past
  26. STEELE

    -focuses on disadvantaged, reparations, Black & White issue (all 3 not AA)
    -why AA not reverse discrimination
    -how AA harms Blacks
    -Model & Meritocracy
    • -why AA not reverse discrimination-does not add up with disparate impact, %s of positions
    • -how AA harms Blacks-encourages to embrace victimization, increases feelings of inferiority, lowers standards- NOT accurately presented in media
    • -Model & Meritocracy-develop economic and educational systems that help disadvantaged, racism should be severely sanctioned, monitor institutions for racism= FAIR COMPETITION AND MERITOCRACY
Card Set
1st Ethics Exam