1. NOR
    Contains the chromatin that is transcribed to produce rRNA; Transcription of pre-ribosomal RNA
  2. Fibrous Regions
    Contain the transcribed nuclear RNA that is undergoing splicing and dicing
  3. Granular Regions
    contain the maturing rRNA that is being assembled into ribosomal subunits (40s and 60s subunits)
  4. Vesicular
    Large, euchromatic nucleus with prominent nucleolus
  5. What do Peroxisomes contain?
    numerous enzymes, most prominently urate oxidase, catalase, and D-amino acid oxydase
  6. What stains actin?
  7. What stains Microtubules?
  8. What stains Intermediate Filaments?
  9. Diameter of Microtubules
    25 nm
  10. Diameter of Actin
    5-9 nm
  11. Diameter of Intermediate Filaments
    10 nm
  12. Diameter of Myosin
  13. What is another word for Nuclear Cisternae
    Nuclear Pore
  14. Type of subunits that make up intermediate filaments
    small, elongated and fibrous subunits
  15. Type of subunits that make up actin
    compact globular subunits
  16. Type of subunits that make up myosin
    compact globular subunits
  17. What type of interactions hold filaments together?
    non-covalent interactions to facilitate rapid assembly and disassembly
  18. Depolarizes (dissolves) actin filaments
  19. Stabalizes actin filaments by blocking depolymerization
  20. breaks actin filaments
  21. Lamins are what type of filament?
    Intermediate filaments
  22. Desmosomes are also known as:
    Macula Adherens
  23. Intermediate filaments attach to what in desmosomes
    Desmoplakins (attachment plaque) and Desmogleins (Cadherins)
  24. Intermediate filaments attach to what in hemidesmosomes
    Attachment plaque (plectin) and integrins
  25. What cross links actin?
    Alpha actinin (loose) and fimbrin (tight)
  26. Bend easy but are hard to break
    Intermediate filaments
  27. What filaments are involved with blistering skin disease?
    Mutant keratin genes cause intermediate filament problems
  28. Microtubule organizing structure
  29. Interferes with microtubule movement by stabilizing microtubules
    Taxol: used to treat breast and uterine cancers
  30. Interferes with microtubule assembly
    Vineblastin: used to treat hodgkin's lymphoma and cancer
  31. What happens in microtubules when GTP --> GDP
    Microtubule filaments curve slightly
  32. Three motor proteins
    Myosins, Kinesins, Dyneins
  33. What do Kinesins do?
    Move cargo to the + end
  34. What makes up Kinesins?
    dymers of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains with microtubule and ATP binding sites on head and cargo binding sites on tail
  35. What do Dyneins do?
    Cytoplasmic Dyneins Move cargo to the - end of microtubules and aid in mitosis spindle development and Axonemal Dyneins power the beating of flagella and cillia
  36. What make up dyneins?
    large protein complexes with many subunits
  37. Where are proteins made?
    Almost exclusively in the cytosol except a few in mitochondria
  38. how many proteins make up the nuclear pore complex
  39. what is the largest size protein that can go through the nuclear pore?
    60 kDa
  40. what energy is used to transport molecules through nuclear pores?
    GTD Hydrolysis
  41. membrane-bound oligosaccharyl transferase enzyme glycosylates what?
    target asparagine amino acids when proteins enter the ER lumen
  42. N-linked glycosylation promotes protein folding by :
    1. making intermediates more soluble in water thus prevent their aggregation 2. mediates binding between proteins and chaperones 3. establish a ‘glyco code’ that marks the progression of protein folding
  43. How do vesicles move
    Microtubule networks and motor proteins (kinesin, dynein)
  44. What are COPI and COPII?
    COPI coats vesicles going towards the ER, COPII coats vesicles moving away from the ER through the Golgi
  45. What is the Constitutive secretory pathway?
    secretory vesicles dump contents of cells outside cell membrane. In case of polarized cells, proteins are selectively directed to either the apical or the basolateral membrane domain
  46. Where do the Constitutive and regulated secretory pathways diverge?
    Trans Golgi Network
  47. How does LDL enter the cell?
    via receptor-mediated endocytosis
  48. What pH is the interior of endosomes and why?
    The interior of the endosome compartment is kept acidic (pH 5-6) by an ATP-driven proton pump that pumps H+ into the endosome lumen from the cytosol
  49. Tight Junctions are also known as
    Zonula occludens
  50. Zonula occludens are also known as
    Tight Junctions
  51. The four layers of the junctional complex in order are:
    Zonula occludens, Zonula adherens, Macula adherens (desmosome), and Gap junction
  52. How can the individual components of the junctional complex be seen?
    Usually only with an electron microscope
  53. What proteins are involved with the Zonula Occludens?
    Claudins and Occuldins (sewing together)
  54. Zonula Adherens are known as
    Adhering Junctions
  55. Adhering junctions are known as
    Zonula Adherens
  56. What proteins are associated with Zonula Adherens?
    Cadherens, Catenin, alpha actin and an actin terminal web
  57. Desmosomes are known as
    Macula Adherens
  58. What proteins are associated with desmosomes
    Cadherens (desmogleins), Desmoplakins, and Tonofilaments (intermediate filaments)
  59. Gap junction is also called a
  60. what proteins are associated with gap junctions
  61. how wide are gap junctions and how wide are connexins?
    2nm wide and 1.5 nm diameter
  62. How wide are desmosomes?
    35 nm
  63. How can the basement membrane be seen?
    light microscope
  64. what is the attachment plaque for hemidesmosomes called
  65. what proteins are associated with hemidesmosomes
    tonofilaments (intermediate filaments) attach to plectin, which is attached to integrins which insert into the laminin of the lamina rara which then connects to the type IV collagen in the lamina densa and fibtonectin and type VII collagen connect that to the type III collagen reticular lamina
  66. What is the core of microvilli
    actin core anchored to the terminal web
  67. dimensions of microvilli
    1-2 um tall, 0.08 um wide
  68. What are stereocillia
    essentially very tall microvilli
  69. dimensions of cillia
    5-10 um tall. 0.2 um wide
  70. what proteins stabalize the actin core and attach it to the microvillar membrane
    Villin, Fimbrin, and Myosin I
  71. What is an axoneme?
    Base of a cillia, made up of 9 doublets and a central pair of microtubules (tubulin), it is anchored to the basal body, dynein arms bend the cillia
  72. Describe the basal body
    9 triplets, but no central pair of microtubules
  73. What are primary cillia?
    special population of non-motile cilia that lack the central pair of tubules. Problems with primary cilia can have been tied to diseases, including polycystic kidneys and some forms of skin cancer, they may allow for sensing the environment
  74. limit of resolution of a light microscope
    0.2 um (200 nm)
  75. Basal folds of mitochondria stain what with H&E
    pink with eosin
  76. vinblastin and taxol do what?
    vinblastin blocks assembly of microtubules and taxol blocks disassembly of microtubules
  77. Genetic deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme hexosaminidase-A results in
    Tay-Sachs disease, GM2 gangliosidosis
  78. At cellular focal adhesions (attachment plaques), extracellular matrix connects to the cytoskeleton via
    integrins, actin-associated proteins, and actin
  79. When cells ingest proteins by pinocytosis or by receptor-mediated
    • endocytosis, the proteins are broken down in
    • secondary lysosomes
  80. The molecular motor proteins kinesin and dynein move cellular organelles along what?
  81. where is signal peptidase found?
    inner (cisternal) surface of rER
  82. Red blood cell diameter
    7 um
  83. what protein makes up the triplet structure found in centrioles and basal bodies
  84. Proteins associated with microvilli
    fimbrin, myosin
  85. proteins associated with the cell cortex
    spectrin, filamin
  86. what actin proteins are associted with endocytosis
  87. what actin filaments are associated with focal adhesions
    alpha acitinin, vinculin, talin, and integrin
  88. I-cell disease
    A recessive, lysosomal storage disease, lack enzymatic ability in cis golgi to phosphorylates mannose (lysosomal hydrolase precursor) results in lysosomal acid hydrolase enzymes 9 to be found in the blood stream, inclusion bodies form in lysosomes
  89. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGS)
    Caused by mutation in Laminin A, a protein in nuclear lamina, results in abnormal nuclear structure, the aging disease
  90. Zellweger Syndrome
    gentic defect in process of importing proteins into peroxisomes, leads to “empty” peroxisomes
  91. Xeroderma pigmentosum
    urine-pyrimidine dimmers form after UV exposure and can’t be replaced, defect in nuclear protein causes skin cancer
  92. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS)-
    group of connective tissue disorders from inheritable defects in metabolism of fibrillar collagen molecules
  93. Cystic Fibrosis
    protein misfolding disease, deletion of phenylalanine(degraded after incorrect folding) No CF transmembrane conductace regulator (CFTR) protein
  94. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
    caused by prion (PrP), “mad cow” disease. resistant to proteolytic degradation insoluble fibril aggregations can occur
  95. Alzheimer’s disease
    spontaneous folding, protein cleaved and let with amyloid precursors. Fragments come together and form amyloid plaques
  96. Marfan’s Syndrome
    - mutation in fibrillin-1 proteina. abnormal fibrillin inhibit functional microfibrils
  97. Huntington’s Disease
    extra replication/amplification of CAG codon causes insertion of extra Gln residues in Huntington proteina.Extra Gln residue cause accumulation of protein aggregates
  98. Which of these are completed in the cytoplasm?: RNA polymerase II , Catalase, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, immunoglobulin G, and B-hexaminadase A
    RNA polymerase II and Catalase are completed in the cytoplasm, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, immunoglobulin G, and B-hexaminadase A are not.
  99. What does lipoprotein lipase do?
    Lipoprotein lipase is responsible for cleaving fatty acids from triacylglycerol carried by chylomicrons and VLDL
  100. What does hormone sensitive lipase do?
    Hormone sensitive lipase is responsible for cleaving fatty acids from adipose tissue during a fast
  101. What contributes to hyperglycemia and a ketonic state for insulin patients who don't take their medicine?
    In insulin patients gluconeogenisis contributes to hyperglycemia, oxidation of fatty acids in the liver contributes to ketonic state
  102. Lactate to Pyruvate or pyruvate to lactate by lactase dehydrogenase
  103. Serine to glycine by serine hydroxyl methyl transferase –
  104. Urea to ammonia by urease –
  105. Pyruvate to acetaldehyde by pyruvate decarboxylase –
  106. Methylmalonyl COA to succinyl CoA by methulmalonyl CoA mutase
  107. Pyruvate to oxaloacetate by pyruvate carboxylase –
  108. Catalyze oxidation – reduction reactions –
  109. Catalyze transfer of C- N- or P- containing groups –
  110. Catalyze cleavage of bonds by addition of water –
  111. Catalyze cleavage of C-C, C-S and certain C-N bonds –
  112. Catalyze racemization of optical or geometric isomers –
  113. Catalyze formation of bonds between carbon atoms and O, S, N, coupled to hydrolysis of high energy phosphates –
  114. Where does CO bind to Hemoglobin?
    Same site as O2
  115. Where does CO2 bind to Hemoglobin?
    at a different site than O2, making carbaminohemoglobin
  116. What is the minor adult form of hemoglobin?
    alpha 2 delta 2
  117. how many protons are released for every O2 bound in hemoglobin?
    A proton is released for every two O2 bound in hemoglobin (max 2 per hemoglobin molecule because maximum of 4 O2 molecules bound)
  118. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis) determines?
    protein molecular weight
  119. V = ?
    V = Vmax[S]/([Km + [S])
  120. Competative inhibitors are usually structurally similar to?
    Competative inhibitors are usually structurally similar to substrates
  121. Ehlers Danlos caused by ?
    Ehlers Danlos caused by procollagen peptidase definciency
  122. Cystic fibrosis is caused by ?
    Cystic fibrosis is caused by a thee base pair deletion in a gene such that the encoded protein misfolds and is degraded prior to reaching its normal location
  123. Picture the Hemidesmosome
    • Image Upload 1Image Upload 2
  124. Picture the microvilli
    Image Upload 3
  125. Picture where ribosomes are made
    Image Upload 4
Card Set
histo and biochem