1. Leon Chestang
    Nuturing system vs Sustaining system
    • Nurturing: family, friends, immediate community (where a person is veiwed and loved as a unique individual)
    • sustaining system: institutions of the larger society (where the person is educated, employed, and is envolved in the economic and political world)
    • "dual perspective" where the person must constantly shift between worlds, for minority people this can evoke conflict
  2. bicultural identity
    different forms of adaptation
    • Traditional adaptation:behavior, values, and beliefs and individuals of a diverse group that are distinct from those fo the majority group, strong ethnic identity
    • Marginal adaptation: do not adhere to closely to the values and behaviors of the ethnic group or of larger society, often results in cultural conflict
    • assimilation: value norms of the sustaining system, devalue norms in nurtuing system
    • bicultural adaptation: integrate the norms, values, beliefs of their ethnic group and larger society
  3. African Americans
    • kinship relations are important
    • male/female roles are egalitarian
    • children are expected to respect elders
    • deep sense of mutual responsibility
    • spirituality is important
    • leading COD in males 10-24 is homicide
  4. Asian americans
    • great importance placed on family honor
    • elders are revered
    • families have structured roles
    • consideration is given to what is good for everyone, not just the individual
    • open conflicts are discouraged
    • reluctant to share private matters with strangers
    • mental illness=shame on the family, impacts help seeking behaviors
    • seeking help for physical problems is okay
    • observing cultural proprieties is important before beginning a serious discussion of issues
    • tx of choice is direct, short term, problem solving
    • may avoid eye contact and reluctant to discuss deel emotions
  5. caucasians
    • change is valued over tradition
    • male/female are egalitarian, role reversal is common
    • strong sense of individualism/self help
    • future and youth are revered
    • value is placed on work, activity, and competition
    • communication is direct, open, honest
    • belief in personal control over fate
  6. hispanic/latino
    • patriarchal families, defined roles
    • major decisions are made by parents
    • welfare of the family is more important that welfare of the individual
    • stress interdependence over independence
    • native language is important
    • do no discuss personal problems with outsiders
    • spirituality is important as is the role of fate
  7. native americans
    • elders are held in high regard
    • generosity is a value
    • rigid gender roles
    • tribes are responsible for raising children
    • trust is placed in tribal deicisions (not decisions made outside of the tribe)
    • great importance is on tribal cutsom
    • listening is more important than talking
    • spiritual/holistic approach to life
    • tx of choice is non-directive, collaborative, utilizing the network or tribal elders and traditional healers
  8. coming out for LGBT
    • identity confusion
    • recognition of LGBT identity
    • exploration/experimentation
    • disclosure to others
    • acceptance of self
    • withdrawl from heterosexual world
    • largest increase of new HIV cases is among women
    • 4 disease stages:
    • Acute infection
    • asymptomatic
    • symptomatic/chronic
    • AIDS
    • increased risk of suicide
    • risk for psychiatric dx such as adjustment disorder, anxiety, depression
    • focus on helping in the here and now and learning new ways of coping and problem solving
    • CBT and groups may be effective
  10. military vets and their families
    • frequently experience sleep issues, anxiety, numbness, hyper vigiliance, SA, and desire to return to active duty, martial difficulties
    • therapeutic interventions
    • CBT
    • solution focused brief therapy
    • acceptance and commitment therapy
    • narrative therapy
    • family and couples therapy
    • Eye Movment Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
  11. Biopsychosocial model vs medical model
    • B: looks at physical health, emotions/behaviors, and role of the environment as well as strengths/weaknesses, current functioning, mental health and needs
    • M:focuses on pathology (not strengths based)
  12. Strengths Perspective
    • empowers client to solve their own problems
    • examines possible alternatives
    • teaches competencies
    • creates more equity between the client and worker
    • builds self confidence
    • helps client see that their problems are influenced by multiple factors, are interactive, and ever-changing
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