1. "Cancer"
    name for a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control
  2. Cancer cells develop because of
    damage to DNA
  3. Cancer cells can spread to
    other parts of the body by breaking off from the original group and establishing remote colonies ( also called secondary tumors)
  4. The spread of cancer is termed
    Not cancerous

    Can often be removed

    Most cases do not reoccur

    Cells do not spread to other areas of the body

    Example: Lipoma (collection of fat cells)
    Are cancerous

    Can invade other areas of the body-Metastasize

    Examples: Carcinoma, Sarcoma, leukemia, Lymphoma & myeloma, CNS
  7. Carcinoma
    -cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
  8. Sarcoma
    cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
  9. Leukemia
    cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
  10. Lymphoma and Myeloma
    cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system.
  11. CNS cancers
    cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.
  12. •Non-modifiable Risk Factors



    • •Family medical
    • history
  13. Modifiable Risk Factors



    §Sun exposure

    §Infectious disease


  14. What are Some cancers related to viruses which could be prevented with vaccine
    HPV and cervical cancer
  15. 1/3 of all cancers related to
    ¡dietary factors and lack of physical activity in adulthood
  16. Seven Warning Signs of Cancer
  17. C (Caution)
    ¡C hange in bowel habits
  18. A (cAution)
    ¡A sore that does not heal
  19. U (caUtion)
    ¡U nusual bleeding or discharge from body
  20. T (cauTion)
    ¡T hickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
  21. I (cautIon)
    ¡I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing
  22. O (cautiOn)
    ¡O bvious change in wart or mole
  23. N (cautioN)
    ¡N agging cough or hoarseness
  24. Biopsy
    the only definitive means of diagnosing cancer
  25. ¡For most cancers, the stage is based on 3 main factors:
    §The original (primary) tumor's size and whether or not the tumor has grown into nearby areas

    §Whether or not the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes

    §Whether or not the cancer has spread to distant areas of the body
  26. Clinical Staging Determines
    determines the anatomic extent of the cancer, before treatment starts
  27. TMN classification system
    initially and at several evaluation points
  28. Cancer Therapy
    ¡Surgical Therapy


    ¡Radiation Therapy

    ¡Stem cell transplantation

    ¡Biologic and targeted therapy

    ¡Gene Therapy
  29. Goal of cure or control is to
    ¡remove all or as much tumor as possible while sparing normal tissue

    §Want small tumor size

    §Clean tissue margins

    §Absence of node involvement

    §No abnormal tumor markers
  30. Cytoreduction (Debulking
    ¡procedure performed when not all of the tumor can be removed

    §Take as much tissue as possible
  31. Radiation Therapy
    ¡Destroys cancer cells with minimal exposure of the normal cells to the damaging actions in radiation


    ¡External beam radiation (teletherapy)

    ¡Internal radiation (brachytherapy)
  32. ¡External beam radiation (teletherapy)
    §Delivery of radiation from a source placed at some distance from the target site in the RT department
  33. ¡Internal radiation (brachytherapy)
    §Involves placement of specially prepared radioisotopes directly into or near the tumor itself or into the systemic circulation.
  34. Radiation Facts
    Patient may have radiation 5 days per week for 5-7 week duration, 15-20 minutes

    Shielding block used to protect normal tissue from ionizing rays.

    Seeds sealed radiation

    Unsealed iv radiation
  35. Radiation Therapy Skin Care
    ¡Don’t wash treatment area until instructed to do so. Wash treated skin gently withmild soap, rinse well, & pat dry.

    • Use warm or cool water. Use hand rather than wash
    • cloth to bathe.

    ¡Don’t remove tattoo marks.

    ¡Avoid powders, lotions, creams, alcohol,& deodorants on treated skin.

    • ¡Wear loose-fitting clothing to avoid friction
    • over treatment field.

    ¡No tape, dressings on site.

    • ¡No direct sunlight, chlorinated swimming
    • pools, and temperature extremes.
  36. Three key principles to protect nurse (Radiation Precautions)
    1) distance

    2) time

    3) shielding
  37. The greater the distance from the radiation source, the
    the less the exposure dose of ionizing rays
  38. Exposure time (Radiation Precautions) should generally be limited to
    30 min of direct care per 8-hour shift for uterine implant.

    Rotate staff caring for these patients. Pregnant staff assigned other patients.

    Visitors restricted.

    Nurses are given film badges to record amount or radiation exposure.
  39. Purpose of Chemotherapy

    §Increase mean survival time

    Decrease the risk for specific life-threatening complications



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