LSW exam

  1. Psychoanalytic theory of personality
    Freud: seeks to relieve the person of neuroses via the use of free associate and dream analysis to uncover repressed conflicts that are subsequently re-lived on an emotional and intellectual level
  2. Levels of Consciousness
    • Freud: Psychoanalytic:
    • Conscious: mental activities we are aware of
    • Preconscious: feelings, thoughts, and ideas of which we are not currently aware, but can bring to awareness relatively easily.
    • Unconcious: we are unaware; distressing throughts are repressed and end up here
  3. The structure of personality
    • Freud: psychoanalytic:
    • id:only part of personality present at birth; unconscious; includes instincts; operates on the pleasure principle; Cathexis occurs when the id invests libidinal energy into an image of an object that has the capacity to fill a need
    • ego: operates on the reality principle; development of the ego is intertwined with the psychosexual development of the child; seeks to gain gratification and needs met in a socially acceptable way
    • superego:an internal value system adopted from the environment, eventually takes over the position the parents had with the child
  4. psychosexual stages of development
    • Freud: psychoanalytic
    • Pathology occurs when there is an failure to negotiate one of the psychosexual stages (over or under gratification); trauma and result in fixation because it is often associated with undergratification
    • Stage 1:Oral Stage (birth-1) (mouth is the source of pleasure
    • Stage 2:Anal Stage (2-3) focus is on learning control over bowel/urninary functions
    • Stage 3: Phallic Stage (3-6) superego develops, sexual organs are source of pleasure
    • Stage 4: Latency Period (6-11) repression of sexual feelings, genital area continues to be the primary zone of gratificiation
    • Stage 5: Genital Stage (12-adult) primary focus is on erotic pleasure with the genitals
  5. Jean Piaget: cognitive development
    Two ways humans learn
    • Assimilation: the incorperation of aspects of one's environment into an existing thought structure
    • Accomodation: modifying current thought sructure to incoporate a new, percieved feature of the environment
  6. Piaget model of cognitive development
    • Birth-2: Sensorimotor: understand the world through perception and action; abilities expand through this period so that by 2 we can purposefully combine actions
    • 2-7: preoperational: thought is egocentric, mastery of indepently aquired skills, can form mental representations of objects and imagine actions related to them
    • 7-11: concrete operations: logical thinking, imaginations are constrained by reality, can perform logical operations on concrete objects
    • 11-adult: ability to reason abstractly
  7. Leo Vigotsky
    Child Development
    • Based on how children learn
    • Children learn best in a supportive environment where they can identify what needs to be done instead of someone telling them.
  8. Vigotsky
    The learning process in children
    • 1. culture and social environment provide guidance and support in the learning process
    • 2. Human behavior is not exlusively regulated by stimulus and response conditions
    • 3. The childs learning process consists of people who provide tools through modeling, questioning, prompting, and suggesting strategies so they can accomplish things they couldnt do on their own
    • Language is an important part of learning, enables the child to form concepts and therefore think
    • (ex are in classrooms where there is social interaction, group conversation, and oral/written expression)
  9. Anna Freud
    Identified ego defense mechanisms used by the ego to minimize distress caused by conflict in the id and superego, used by an immature ego
  10. Compensation
    • Ego defense mech by anna freud
    • seeking of success in one area of life as a substitute for success in another area of life that has been limited ecause of personal or environmental barriers
  11. conversion
    • ego defense mech by anna freud
    • anxiety is transformed into a physical dysfunction, such as paralysis or blindness, which does not have a physiological basis
  12. denial
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • a refusal to acknowledge an aspect of reality, including one's own experience, because to do so would result in overwhelming anxiety
  13. displacement
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • shifting of negative feelings one has about a person or situation onto a different person or situation
  14. identificiation
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • anxiety is handeled through identifying with the person or thing producing the anxiety, such as "identifying with the kidnapper"
  15. isolation of affect
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • painful feelings are separated from from the incident that triggered them initially
  16. intellectualization
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • reasoning is used to block difficult feelings, removing ones feelings from a stressful event
  17. projection
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • one's own negative characteristics are denied and instead seen as being characteristics of someone else
  18. rationalization
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • a person substitues a more socially acceptable, logical reason for an action rather than identifying the real motivation
  19. reaction formation
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • adopting a behavior that is the antithesis of the instintual urge (ex acting as if one is sympathetic to an oppressed group when they have prejudices against them)
  20. regression
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • reverting to more primitive modes of coping associated with earlier and safer developmental periods
  21. repression
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • the unconscious pushing of anxiety producing throught and issues out of the conscious and into the unconscious
  22. sublimation
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • intolerable drives or desires are diverted into activities that are acceptable
  23. substitution
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • where a person replaces an unacceptable goal with an acceptable one
  24. undoing
    • ego defense mech by AF
    • an individual engages in a repetitious ritual in an attempt to reverse an unacceptable action previously taken
  25. acting out
    • defense mech not by AF
    • allows an idividual to deal with emotional conflict or stress by exhibiting observable behavior rather than by merely feeling or relecting
  26. affiliation
    • defense mech not by AF
    • when an individual shares with others his or her emotional conflict or stress for the purpose of eliciting support or help rather than for the purpose of trying to place the responsibility on someone else
  27. aim inhibition
    • defense mech not by AF
    • utilized when a person places a limit on his instinctual demands and accepts a modified fulfillment of goals or desires
  28. altrusim
    • defense mech not by AF
    • when an individual deals with his or her emotional conflict or stress by selflessly dedicating his or her life to meeting the needs of others, thereby receiving vicarious gratification
  29. anticipation
    • a defense mech not by AF
    • when an indivudal deals iwth anxiety by "practicing" his or her emotional reactions to an anticipated future event and by considering the responses or soluations that he or she may utilize to deal with that event
  30. autistic fantasy (fantasy)
    • not by AF
    • when an individual daydreams excessively as a substitute for real action
  31. avoidance
    • not by AF
    • an individual's refusal to partidipate in activities or encounter situations or objects that represent unconscious, aggressive or sexual impulses and the possible punishment for those impulsese, a major mech used by people with phobias
  32. deflection
    • not by AF
    • a group member who redirects attention away from themselves and onto another group member
  33. devaluation
    • not by AF
    • an individual deals with his or her emotional conflict or stress by attributing negative qualities to himself or to others
  34. dissociation
    • not by AF
    • compartmentalization, or separating of activities or thoughts from the main portion of one's consciousness. often seen in the behavior of people with "two lives" separating one from the other
  35. fixation
    • not by AF
    • the interruption of normal personality development at a stage short of mature independence
  36. help-rejecting complaining
    • not by AF
    • an individual deals with their emotional conflict or stress by asking for help and then rejecting the help that is given; often the requests for help are disguised feelings of hostility which are expressed with refusal of help
  37. humor
    • not by AF
    • an individual deal with stress by pointing out amusing aspects of the stress
  38. idealization
    • not by AF
    • the process of over-estimating the desirable qualities and under-estimating the limitations of something that is important to the individual
  39. identification
    • not by AF
    • seen in both the unconscious and consciou modeling of another person's behavior or style, but often in a less intense or complete manner than would be seen in pathological identification
  40. incorportation
    • not by AF
    • used early in development whereby a child, through observation, assimilates into her own ego and superego the values, attitudes, and preferences fo the parents
  41. introjection
    • not by AF
    • unconsciously incorporating ideas, attributes, or mental images into one's own personality
  42. isolation
    • not by AF
    • a mechanism whereby an individual is able to split off emotional components from a thought or experience (maybe only until that experience is over) typically seen in people with OCD
  43. omnipotence
    • not by AF
    • an individual dealing with his or her own emotional stress by feeling or acting superior
  44. passive aggression
    • not by AF
    • and individual expresses aggression toward another person in an indirect and unassertive manner, which in turn, gives the agitator the opportunity to avoid the emotional stress related to dealing with the other person's rejection
  45. resistance
    • not by AF
    • prevents the bringing of repressed feelings or information to conscious awareness, thus sparing the anxiety that would arise from those memories or insights
  46. restitution
    • not by AF
    • a mechanism of relieving stress or guild by doing something to make up for what one considers a bheavior error committed against another individual
  47. self-assertion
    • not by AF
    • healthy
    • an individual deals with his or her emotional conflict or stress by expressing feelings and thought directly an in a non-coercive or non-manipulative manner
  48. somatization
    • not by AF
    • an individual expresses physical sx of the body's sympathetic and parasympathetic system as the result of emotional conflict or stress
  49. splitting
    • not by af
    • in order to relate to significant others, an individual may "split" the significant other into two parts, good and bad, in an effort to cope with the painful feelings associated with that person.
  50. suppression
    • not by AF
    • the conscious and intentional exclusion of data from consciousness
  51. symbolization
    • not by AF
    • a way of handling emotional conflicts by turning those conflicts into symbols, which can be viewed as displacements of deeper desires.
  52. Abraham Maslow
    • viewed the needs of humans as heirarchical
    • the most basic needs must be met before higher level needs can be met
    • use in treatment planning
    • physiological needs
    • safety needs
    • belonging and love needs
    • esteem needs
    • self-actualization
  53. erik erikson:
    Ego psychology
    Psychosocial stages
    • 1: trust vs mistrust (birth-1) whether or not the infants needs are met determines its level of trust in himself and others
    • 2: autonomy vs shame and doubt (2-3) children will begin to master some things, but the parents must provide boundaries to keep the child safe.
    • 3: initiative vs guilt (3-5) increased sense of competence, parents must provide opportunities for iniative-taking
    • 4: industry vs inferiority: (6-11) these children need worthwhile, interesting activites in which they can succeed
    • 5: identity va identity diffusion: (12-18) physical and emotional changes take place, fixation at this stage produces adults who deal with conflict like adolecents
    • 6: intimacy va isolation (19-mid30s) if the last stage was completed this one should be as well, if this stage cannot be negotiated the person becomes self-absorbed
    • 7: Generativity vs stagnation (mis 30s-50s) parenting and preparing the next generation
    • 8: integrity vs despair (60's and beyond)how the person feels about their life, whether or not they fear death
  54. John Bowlby
    Attachment Theory
    • Separation anxiety: first evident between 6-8 months when a baby is distressed when separated from his or her primary caregiver
    • Stranger Anxiety: first manifested at approx 8 mo when a baby is distressed by seeing strangers face instead of a familiar face
  55. Phases a child goes through when they eperience prolonged separation
    • Bowlby
    • Protest phase: angry
    • Despair/depression
    • detachment (adaptive for most, but becomes problematic if overused)
    • anaclitic depression (when the baby has a loving mother who is taken away)
  56. characteristics of attachment
    • Bowlby:
    • Proximity maintenance: the desire to be close to the people to whom we are attached
    • safe haven:returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat
    • secure base:point of security from which the child can explore the environment
    • separation distress:anxiety in the absence of the attachment figure
  57. Person in Environment system (PIE)
    • James Karl and Karen Wandrei
    • assessment, not diagnostic, to examine social functioning balancing problems and strengths
    • social functioning
    • environmental problems
    • mental health problems
    • physical problems
    • the first and second are the primary focus for the social worker
  58. abuse and neglect
    • can lead to long-lasting problems (mental health problems, behavioral probs, SA, relationship probs)
    • cycle of abuse in families (the abused become abusers)
    • perpetrators are usually parents/caregivers
    • poor, young, single parents are most at risk of abusing
    • sexual abusers are usually men and known by their victims
    • the most common perpetrator of physical abuse of a child under 14 is the female parent
  59. cycle of abuse
    • tension building
    • incident
    • reconciliation
    • calm
  60. theories of addiction
    • genetic
    • behavioral
    • environmental
    • psychological
    • psychosocial
    • developmental
    • neurobiological
    • social/cultural
    • social learning
    • risk and protective factors
    • assessment includes needs, history, personal resources, motivational level, and support system
  61. poverty
    • children are the largest segment of the poor
    • numerically there are more white people in poverty, but african americans, hispanics and asian americans are over represented in the poor.
    • women, esp single women with children, are more apt to live in poverty
    • more likely to be malnourished, need healthcare, live in hazardous environments, less likely to complete high school or have gainful employment
  62. suicide
    • 10th leading cause of death in the US
    • high risk:
    • mental disorder (part a mood DO or schizo)
    • SA
    • apathy, hopelessness, poor health
    • no social support
    • unemployment/retirement
    • stressful environmental events
    • male
    • previous attempt
    • LGBTQ
    • family hx of suicide
    • family violence
    • access to guns
    • incarceration
  63. Stages of Dying
    • Elizabeth Kubler Ross
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Depresssion
    • Acceptance
Card Set
LSW exam
LSW exam