1. Prevelance and incidence
    Incidence, which refers to new cases of a condition which occur during a specified period of time, and prevalence, which refers to all cases (new and existing) of a condition observed at a point in time or during a specified period of time.
  2. Epidemiology
    • Epidemiology is the study of patterns of disease within a population. It particularly focuses on questions like "how many," "who," "when,"
    • and "how transmitted."
  3. Case study method
    Research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. Does not allow for cause and effect relationship conclusions.
  4. Cohort effect
    Observation that people of different age groups also differ in their values and experiences.
  5. Criterion validity
    Extent to which categorization accurately predicts the future course of a disorder whether treated or untreated; also known as predictive validity
  6. Cross-sectional design v Longitudinal design
    Cross sectional design take groups of people in different age groups and studies them at the same time. Longitudinal design takes the same aged group of people and follows that same group across time.
  7. Dependent variable v Independent variable
    DV the aspect you want to measure in the people you are studying, IV is the influence on their behaviors.
  8. Double blind control
    Procedure in outcome studies that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving tretment and who is receiving a placebo
  9. Face validity
    Condition of testing in which test items appear plausible for their intended purposes, even if they are not truly valid discriminators.
  10. Informed consent
    Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a research study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it.
  11. External validity vs Internal validity
    EV: Extent to which research study findings generalize, or apply, to people and settings not involved in the study.

    IV: Extent to which the results of a research study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out.
  12. Confound
    Any factor occurring in a research study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied.
  13. Single case design
    Research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause and effect conclusions but with limited generalizability. (contrast with case study design)
  14. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID)
    General, semistructured interview for assessing a wide range of disorders by examining a minimal sample of iformation about each of the major disorders
  15. Testability
    Ability of a hypothesis, for example, to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful
  16. Treatment outcome research
    Studies of the effectiveness of clinical interventions, including the comparison of competing treatments.
  17. Variability
    Degree of change in a phenomenon over time
Card Set
chapter 5