Cardio Intro

  1. How many gallons of blood does your heart pump each day?
    Roughly 2,000
  2. What do Low-Density Lipoproteins(LDL) do?
    • Carries majority of cholesterol in blood
    • *known as "bad cholesterol"
  3. What does High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) do?
    • Carries cholesterol away from arteries to liver for metabolization and excretion
    • *known as "good cholesterol"
  4. What are Triglycerides?
    • fat in food & body
    • converted from calories & stored
    • used for energy between meals
  5. Myocardial arteries are called what?
    Coronary Arteries
  6. What is the higher of the 2 readings and caused by the contraction of the ventricles?
    Systolic pressure
  7. What is the lower of the 2 readings and is the measure of the heart at rest?
    Diastolic Pressure
  8. What is the optimal BP reading?
    <120/80 mm Hg
  9. What system regulates heart rate?
  10. What is Coronary Artery Disease?
    The build up of plaque inside the coronary arteries which damages the inner layers which lowers BP

    Creates imbalance between oxygen supply and demand
  11. What is Arteriosclerosis?
    Type of CAD that hardens arterial walls and decreases blood flow

    Cholesterol deposits (plaque) on the arterial walls
  12. What is Angina Pectoris?
    A type of CAD that involves the blockage of coronary arteries
  13. What is Acute Coronary Syndrome?
    A spectrum of coronary artery diseases

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque clot in coronary arteries
  14. What is the valve between the right atrium and ventricle?
    Tricuspid Valve
  15. What is the valve between the left atrium and ventricle?
    Mitral valve
  16. What is the valve between the left ventricle and the aorta?
    Aortic valve
  17. What is the Valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery?
    Pulmonary Valve
  18. What is Cardiomyopathy?
    • Structure/functional abnormality of the myocardium
    • Results in loss of muscle efficiency/heart function
  19. What is Congestive Heart Failure?
    Heart cannot pump enough blood/oxygen to organs
  20. What is a Heart Murmur?
    Abnormal Heart Sound
  21. What is Rheumatic Fever?
    Streptococcal infection
  22. What is Arrhythmias?
    Any abnormal heartbeat
  23. What are the three types of Arrhythmias?
    • Bradycardia
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Tachycardia
    • Flutter
    • Ventricular fibrillation
  24. What is the only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood?
    Pulmanary Vein
  25. What is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood?
    Pulmonary Artery
  26. What is a Stroke?
    Loss of bodily functions bc of insufficient supply of blood to brain

    Blood obstructed->brain loses oxygen supply->brain tissue dies
  27. What is Peripheral Vascular Disease?
    Blood vessels outside the <3 affects peripheral circulation
  28. What is the route of blood traveling through the heart?
    • 1. deoxygenated blood comes in right atrium from superior vena cava
    • 2. from right atrium through the tricuspid valve into right ventricle
    • 3. from right ventricle through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery
    • 4. to the lungs to become oxygenated
    • 5. returns through pulmonary veins to the left atrium
    • 6. from left article through mitral valve to left ventricle
    • 7. From left ventricle through aortic valve to the aorta
    • 8. oxygenated blood is distributed to the body
  29. What kind of muscle is the myocardial?
    Hallow Muscle
  30. Which valve controls the volume of blood being distributed to the body?
    Mitral valve
  31. Where is the site of oxygen and nutrient exchange?
  32. What does White blood cells do?
    Fight infections
  33. What do Platletts?
  34. What is Plasma?
    Fluid which everything is carried in
  35. What do kidneys do when it comes to cardio output?
    Affect BP by increasing or decreasing urine output
  36. Which 2 medications disrupt coagulation?
    • Heparin
    • Warfarin
  37. What are the symptoms of Peripheral Vascular Disease
    • Cramping
    • Swelling
  38. What is Hypertension?
    High BP
  39. What is Hypotension?
    BP is low
  40. What is Hyperlipidemia?
    • Metabolic abnormalities resulting in elevated cholesterol
    • This leads to artery plaque
  41. What is Hypovolemic Shock?
    Low bood volume shock caused by uncontrolled internal or external bleeding
  42. What is Thromboembolic Disease?
    Blood clots
  43. What is Endocarditis?
    inflammation of the heart lining valves caused by Valve malformation
  44. What is Cardiac Arrest?
    • Cessation of heartbeat and respiration
    • CPR can restore.
  45. What is Bradycardia?
    Slow heart rate
  46. What is Tachycardia?
    Fast heart rate
  47. What is Atrial fibrillation?
    • a beat thats rapid and shallow in a quivering motion
    • prevent the heart from filling or pumping blood
  48. What is Flutter?
    Rapid or chaotic heart rate
  49. What is a Ventricular fibrillation?
    • *most serious form of arrhythmia*
    • ventricles stop filling w/blood
    • blood stops going to body
  50. 5 types of Arrhythmias
    • Bradycardia
    • Tachycardia
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Flutter
    • Ventricular fibrillation
  51. Whats the danger with Thromboembolic Disease?
    If the build up in varocose veins becomes lose it can travel and cause coronary or lung blockage.
  52. Characterized by chest pain that feels "like an elephant sitting on chest"
    Angina Pectoris
  53. Inflamation of the bladder
  54. Hardening of the arteries that can result in decreased blood flow
  55. Condition characterized by inefficient pumping of blood by the heart
    Chestive Heart Failure
  56. Elevated cholesterol
  57. Condition in which plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries
    Coronary Artery Disease
  58. Inflamation of the bladder
  59. Presence of microorganisms in the urine
    Urinary Tract Infections
  60. Swelling of the kidneys caused by an infection
  61. Inflammation of th heart lining and valves
  62. Insufficient supply of blood to a part of the brain
  63. Structural or functional abnormality of the heart muscle
  64. Clotting Process step 1
    1. Platelets activated by damaged blood vessels

    2. platelets adhere to exposed collagen of blood vessel wall

    3. Platelets get sticky and adhesive
  65. Clotting process step 2
    1. platelets stimulate coagulation factors

    • 2. Cascade is initiated
    • - Vit K
    • - 13 clotting factors
    • - factors I, II, V, XIII
    • -Fibrinogen is converted into filaments of fibrin
  66. Clotting Process Step 3
    1. Fibrin filaments from meshwork

    2. Meshwork traps platelets, RBCs and WBCs

    3. Blood vessel is plugged

    4. Fibrin contracts to form sold clot
  67. Clotting Process Step 4
    1. Clot begins to dissolve

    2. Fibrinolysin breaks down fibrin meshwork

    3. Soluble elements are scavenged and removed
  68. What does CBC stand for?
    Complete Blood Count
  69. What is Blood Dyscrasias?
    Drug-induced injuries or disorders of the blood
  70. Thrombocytopenia
    Decrease number of platelets
Card Set
Cardio Intro