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  1. Autosomes
    • 22 pairs
    • Everything except sex chromosomes
  2. Sex Chromosomes
    X,Y- One pair code for sex traits
  3. Homologous Chromosomes
    • Same genes not necessarily same alleles
    • One from mom and one from dad
  4. Karyotype
    • All chromosomes
    • All DNA genotype
  5. Four possible Nucleotides
    • ATCG
    • Adenine
    • Thymine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • All have nitrogen and phosphate-sugar-base
    • DNA is a string of nucleotides
    • A only with T, C only with G
    • Diagram in notes.
  6. DNA Replication
    • 1. Parent DNA- two strands of base paired nucleotides.
    • 2. Parental strands unwind and separate. This is done by enzymes .
    • 3. Once open and exposed is will attract a complementary base.
  7. Unique Nucleotide Sequences
    • Codes for amino acids- which are proteins
    • 3 billion base pairs for humans DNA
  8. Restriction Enzymes
    • Enzymes that cut up DNA.
    • Made by bacteria- defense against bacteria
    • 110 of them
    • Attach to DNA and look for a recognizable sequence, cut the DNA
  9. DNA Fingerprint
    • Bands of children have to come from parents
    • Unless mutations the bands will match
    • Siblings will have half bands in common
    • Unrelated people will have few bands in common
  10. Mitosis
    • Make identical cells to the ones that are there.
    • 46 chromosomes
    • 46 chromosomes
    • 92- does not work must have 46
    • So if you use half of both it would work
  11. Meiosis
    Cell division by germ cells- reduces chromosomes number process that makes egg and sperm.
Card Set
Exam 2-3
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