Med Surg Final Exam

  1. What does alveolar surfactact do in the lungs?
    Allows the exchange of gases in the alveoli of the lungs and contributes to the elasticity of pulmonary tissue
  2. What is lung compliance?
    the expandability of the lungs
  3. How long should a incentive spirometer last?
    3 seconds
  4. What is Intermittent positive pressure breathing?
    treatment used to assist the client to take a deep breath and/or give medicinces into the lungs. Its done by a machine that introduces air into the lungs when the client breathes. Done by mouthpiece or mask
  5. Hemoptysis is often a sign of a serious illness including:?
    cancer, bronchiectasis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, TB
  6. What is Chylothorax?
    leakage of lymphatic fluid from the lymphatic vessels typically accumulating in the thoracic or abdominal cavities
  7. What are S/S of Chylothorax?
    SOB, mild tachycardia, pleural effusion, decreased cardiac output, odorless, milky appearance
  8. Patient care for Pulmonary function studies
    aviod scheduling immediately after mealtime, aviod administration of inhaled bronchodilator for 6hrs before proc, provide rest after proc
  9. Acid Fast smear and culture
    performed to collect sputum for acid fast bacilli (TB) series of 3 morning specimens
  10. Cytology
    single sputum specimen is collected in a special container with fixed solution, done to determine presence of abnormal cells that may indicate malignancy
  11. Anergy Test
    to detect false negative results of candida, mumps, tetanus toxiod in immunocompromised clients,
  12. How is Coryza spread?
    airborne droplets
  13. Acute Bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi, the main ait passages to the lungs, symptoms include coughing, SOB, wheezing and fatigue. Caused by bacterial infections (streptococcus pneumoniae, Haeophilus influenza, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia)
  14. Pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleura, occurs when the pleura become inflammed due to microbial infectin, these membrances adhere together and breathing becomes very painful
  15. Pneumonia
    acute inflammation of the parenchyma caused by a microbial agent.
  16. Community acquired pneumonia
    onset occurs in the community the first 2 days of hospitalization,highest in winter months
  17. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
    occuring within 48hrs or longer after hospitalization, increased rate in incubated clients, bacteria resp for most infections
  18. Aspiration Pneumonia
    caused by aspirating mouth or stomach contents into the trachea and then lungs, tube feeding is a risk factor
  19. What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV)? treatment?
    viral pneumonia found in immunospressed clients (transplants), herpes virus can be mild or severe enough to cause death, Treatment is with Ganciclovir (Cytovene)
  20. What are the clinical manifestations of CMV?
    gradual onset, dry cough, headaches, lyalgias, fatigue, sore throat, nausea, vommiting, diarrhea
  21. What are the complications of CMV?
    pluerisy, plerual effusion, atelectasis, lung abcess, empyema, pericarditis, arthitis, meningitis, endocarditis
  22. What are the symptoms of TB?
    fatigue, malaise, productive cough, hemoptysis, low grade fever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss, pulmonary pain
  23. When will a positive reaction to a TB test occur?
    2-12 after the initial exposure
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Med Surg Final Exam
spring first 8wk med surg final exam chapters