Nursing Drugs

  1. Candesartan
    • *antihypertensive agent
    • *angiotension II receptor antagonist
    • *used for mild to moderate hypertension and heart failure
    • *DOSE: (hypertension) 8-16mg daily (orally)
    • *can cause hypotension, palpitations, headache, dizziness, fatigue
    • *Risk of hyperkalemia if given with potassium sparing diuretics/supplements. May take up to 4 weeks to work
    • *contraindicated during pregnancy
  2. Ceftriaxone
    • *antibacterial agent
    • *broad spectrum antibiotic
    • *used when the organisms are not resistant to cefalosporins, such as surgical prophylaxis
    • *DOSE: 1-2g IV bolus, IV infusion over 30 mins in equally divided doses (12 hourly) or IM
    • *Can cause nausea, vomitting, dyspepsia, abdo pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache
  3. Morphine
    • *opioid analgesic
    • *main action on CNS and smooth muscle
    • *used to relieve moderate - severe pain, especially that associated with neoplastic disease and post op pain
    • -DOSE: 5-20mg SC or IM 4-6 hourly
    • 2.5-15mg slow IV (4-5 mins diluted in at least 5ml)
    • *MAY DEPRESS RESPIRATION - monitor. can also cause nausea, constipation, anorexia, vomitting, dry mouth
  4. Metoclopramide
    • *antiemetic agent
    • *prokinetic agent. Controls nausea and vomitting in most cases except motion sickness
    • *DOSE: 10mg orally, slow IV or IM 1-3 times daily
    • *Causes: nausea, constipation, dizziness, diarrhoea, fatigue, insomnia
    • *Should not drive motor vehicle or operate machinery if drowsy or dizzy
  5. Paracetemol
    • *analgesic, antipyretic but not anti inflammatory
    • *used for mild to moderate pain
    • *DOSE: 0.5-1g orally every 3-4 hours PRN up to 4g daiy
    • 1g IV QID
    • 0.5-1g rectal suppository 4-6 hourly up to 4g daily
    • *Can cause nausea, dyspepsia, allergic or haematological reaction, hepatic necrosis
    • *Overdose can cause liver f ailure, do not give IV and oral together
  6. Enoxaparin
    • (Clexane)
    • *Anticoagulant
    • *Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolosm after surgery or bedridden acutely ill patients
    • *DOSE: (high risk) 40mg SC once daily 7-10 days
    • (Medium risk) 20mg SC 7-10 days
    • *can cause haemorrhage. Should not be given IM. Irritation of SC site, mild pain..
    • *injection site is abdomen or upper thigh
  7. Amlodipine
    • *antihypertensive agent
    • *Used for chronic angina and mild to moderate hypertension
    • *DOSE 2.5-5mg orally daily, up to 10mg if necessary
    • *can cause oedema, dizziness, headache, fatigue, flusing, palpitations, nausea
  8. Frusemide
    • *diuretic (loop diuretic)
    • *used for mild to moderate hypertension. cardiac, hepatic, renal, cerebral and pulmonary oedema
    • DOSE: (oedema) 20-80mg orally daily max dose 400mg/day
    • (oedema) 20-40mg IM or slow IV daily
    • *Can cause fluid/electrolyte disturbances, hypovolemia, dehydration, headache, dizziness
    • *fluid/electrolyte/acid base imbalances should be corrected before treatment
  9. Atacand Plus
    • *same as atacand (cardesartan) but includes the diuretic hydrochlorothizide) and treats both hypertension and oedema.
    • *DOSE: 25 - 100mg 1-2 times daily (100mg is max dose)
    • *can cause electrolyte disturbances, hypovolaemia, dehydration, dizziness, headache
  10. Resonium
    • (sodium polystyrene sulfonate)
    • *Ion exchange resin
    • *removes potassium ions from the body by exchanging sodium ions for potessium in the large intestine
    • *DOSE: (powder) 15g orally with sufficient water/syrup to make solution
    • *can cause nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea, constipation, sodium retention, hypokalemia, hypocalceamia
  11. Verapamil
    • *antihypertensive agent (calcium channel blocker)
    • *used for angina and mild to moderate hypertension
    • *DOSE: 80mg orally 2-3 times daily.
    • (may be given IV in hypertensive crisis 5mg slow IV)
    • *can cause headache, dizziness, bradycardia, palpitations, hypotension, nausea
  12. Carbamazepine
    • *antiepileptic
    • *stabilises hyperexcited nerve membranes
    • DOSE: 100-200mg orally 1-2 times daily
    • *can cause drowsiness, headache, ataxia, fatigue, nausea, vomitting, dry mouth etc.
    • *women of childbearing age must be counselled, as there is risk to the fetus
    • *elderly patients may becoming confused/agitated, so must be closely supervised
  13. penicillin
    • *antibacterial agent
    • *used when organisms are not resistant to penicillins eg. resp. tract infection or STI's
    • *can cause nausea, rash, dermatitis, anaemia, diarrhoea, vomitting, superinfection risk
    • *careful history to be taken to avoid allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
  14. adrenaline
    • *sympathomimetic agent
    • *cardiac stimulant causing increased heart rate, output, contractility and BP
    • *used for eart block, cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis etc.
    • *DOSE: (anaphylaxis) 100-500micrograms SC or IM. (SC dose may be repeated every 20mins - 4 hour intervals if required)
    • (CPR) 1mg IV repeated every 3-5mins during CPR
    • *can cause tachycardia, palpitations, ventricular fibrillation, arrhythmias, hypertension, chest pain
    • *not recommended with agents that sensitise the heart to arrhythmias such as digoxin
    • *electrolyte and oxygen imbalances should be corrected before treatment starts
  15. Isophane
    • *antidiabetic agent
    • *used for diabetes to treat hyperglycemia
    • *DOSE: is individual. available in 100units/ml pens, cartridges and vials.
    • *intermediate acting
    • *can cause hypoglycaemia, oedema,
    • Given SC
  16. Aspart
    • *antidiabetic agent
    • (novorapid)
    • *used for diabetes to treat hyperglyceamia
    • *short acting
    • *DOSE: is individual. comes in 100units/ml pen, cartridge and vials.
    • *Cause hypoglycaemia, oedema
    • *can be given SC, IV or IM
  17. Sulfonylureas
    • *antidiabetic agents/oral hypoglycemic agent
    • *stimulate insulin release from functioning pancreatic cells
    • *used for pt's with type 2 diabetes unresponsive to diet alone and in whom insulin is unneccesary
    • *can cause hypoglycaemia, nausea, vomitting, constipation, diarrhoea
  18. Biguanides
    • *antidiabetic agent/hypoglycemic agent
    • *increases insulin sensitivity, requires insulin to be present to have an effect
    • *used for type 2 diabetics unresponsive to diet who dont need insulin
    • *DOSE: 500mg orally 1-2 times daily with meals
    • *can cause diarrhoea, nausesa, vomitting, metallic taste
    • *regular monitoring of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular function is recommended
  19. Meglitinides
    • *antidiabetic/hypoglycaemic agent
    • *stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion by binding to receptor sites
    • *used in type 2 diabetics
    • *DOSE: 0.6mg orally tds.
    • *can cause hypoglycaemia, nausea, diarrohoea, constipation, abdo pain
    • *take medication before food. BGL's should be monitored closely
  20. Thiazolidinedioines
    • *antidiabetic/hypoglyceamic agent
    • *improve insulin sensitivity in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, requires insulin to be present to be effective
    • *used in type 2 diabetics
    • *can cause increased bone fractures in women, hypoglycaemia, oedema, weight gain.
    • *liver function tests should be monitored every 2nd month for first year
  21. Hartmanns
    • *Hartmann's IV Infusion is used to replace body fluid and mineral saltsthat may be lost for a variety ofmedical reasons. Hartmann's IVInfusion is especially suitable whenthe losses result in too much acidbeing present in the blood.
    • *can cause oedema, nausea, vomitting, dizziness, headache
    • * its a crystalloid
  22. Azathioprine
    • *immunomodifier
    • *immune response suppresion, used for organ transpants, and chronic autoimmune disease
    • *5mg/kg orally or IV daily
    • *can cause hypersensitivity reaction, headache, dizziness, fever, skin rash
    • *should limit direct sunlight exposure
  23. Cyclosporin
    • *immunomodifier
    • *immunosuppresent agent used in the prevention of graft versus host disease in organ transplant
    • *DOSE: 10-15mg/kg orally or 3-5mg/kg/day IV infusion
    • *care should be taken during IV administration as solution is highly irritating
  24. 0.9% NaCl
    • Normal saline
    • *isotonic volume expander
    • *used for fluid and electrolyte replenishment
Card Set
Nursing Drugs
Med management test