The study of living things to be seen without magnification
Living things commonly called germs, viruses, and agents but not all cause disease that are useful for everyday living.
Who is Carolus Linneaus? Where is he from? And what did he develop?
He is a Swedish scientist who developed the taxanomic system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar things together.
Describe Leeuwonhock’s microorganism classification system?
The microorganism is grouped into 6 categories as follows: Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Bacteria, Archaea, Small Animals
Describe 4 main facts about Fungi?
- Eukaryotic (have membrane bound nucleus)
- Obtain food from other organisms
- Possess cell walls
- Composed of molds and yeasts
Define Fungi molds?
Multicellular; have hyphae; reproduce by sexual and asexual spores
Define Fungi Yeasts?
Unicellular; Reproduce Asexually by budding; some produce sexual spores
Describe 5 main facts about Protozoa?
- Single-celled Eukaryotes
- Cellular Structure and Nutrient needs are similar to animals
- They live freely in water and some live in animal hosts
- Capable of Sexual and Asexual reproduction. (most are asexual)Most are capable of locomotion by 1. Pseudopodia, 2. Cilia, 3. Flagella
Describe Protozoa Pseudopodia?
Cell extensions that flow in the direction of travel.. shaped like Christmas tree
Describe the 4 main facts about Algae?
- Unicellular or multicellular
- Simple reproductive structures
- Categorized on the basis of pigmentation, storage products and composition of cell wall
Describe the similarities between the attributes of Bacteria and Archaea?
- Both are unicellular and lack nuclei
- Both are much smaller than eukaryotes
- Both are found everywhere there is sufficient moisture; some food
- Both reproduce asexually
Describe the differences between the attributes of Bacterial and Archaea?
- Cell wall contains peptodiglycan
- Some lack w\cell walls
- Most do not cause disease
- Some are beneficial
Cell walls composed of polymers other than peptidoglycan
What was Redi’s Experiment?
Decaying meat was kept from flies, maggots never developed. Meat exposed to flies was soon and maggots developed.
What was Pasteurs’s eExperiment?
It involved swan shaped flasks that contained liquid. When the flask was upright the shape prevented dust from coming inside and prevented microbes. When the flask was tilted, the dust seeped in and microbes caused a cloudy infusion
List some industrial food of Microbes?
- Cheese: Flavoring and ripening produced by bacteria and fungi. Flavors dependent on the source of milk and type of microorganism
- Alcoholic beverages: Bacteria or yeast produces alcohol by fermentation of sugars in fruit juice or grain
- Soy sauce: produced by fungal fermentation of soybeans
- Vinegar: produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar
- Yogurt: produced by bacteria growing in skim milk
- Sour Cream: produced by bacteria growing in cream
- Artificial Sweetener: amino acids are synthesized by bacteria from sugarBread: rising of dough produced by action of yeast; sourdough results from bacteria producing acids
List some industrial Other uses of Microbes?
- Antibiotics: produced by bacteria and fungi
- Human growth hormone, human insulin: produced by genetically engineered bacteria
- Laundry enzymes: isolated from bacteria
- Vitamins: isolated from bacteria
- Diatomaceous earth (used in polishes and buffing compounds)Drain opener: Protein digesting and fat digesting enzymes produced by bacteria
Who developed the germ theory of disease?
Who studied causative agents of disease like anthrax and examined colonies of microorganisms?
List Robert Koch’s experiments:
- Simple staining techniques
- First photomicrograph of bacteria First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue
- Developed techniques for estimating CFU/mL
- Developed use of steam to sterilize media
- Use of Petri dishes
- Developed Aseptic techniques Classified bacteria as a distinct species
- Created Koch’s postulates
List of Scientists and discoveries during the Golden Age of Microbiology
- Robert Koch 1876 Anthrax Bacillus antracis (bacterium
- Albert Neisser 1879 Gonorrhea Neiseria gonorrhoeae (Bacterium)
- Charles Laveran 1880 Malaria Plasmodium species (protozoa)
- Carl Eberth 1880 Typhoid Fever Salmonella Typhi (bacterium)
- Robert Kock 1882 Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacterium)
- Edwin Kleps 1883 Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae (bacterium)
- Theodore escherich 1884 Traveler’s Diarhea/Bladder Infection Escherichia coli (bacterium)
- Albert Fraenkel 1884 Pneumonia Streptococcus pneumonia (bacterium)
- Robert Koch 1884 Cholera Vibrio cholerae (Bacterium)
- David bruce 1887 Undulant fever (brucellosis Brucella meliterosis (bacterium)
- Anton Weichselbaum 1887 Meningococcal meningitis Neisseria meningitis (bacterium)
- A.A. Gartner 1888 Samonellosis (Form of food Poisoning) Salmonella species (bacterium)
- Shibasaburo Kitasato 1889 Tetanus Clostridium tetani (bacterium)
- Dmitri Ivanowski&Martinus Beigerinck 1898 Sigellosis(Type of severe Diarrhea) Shigella dysenteriae (bacterium)
- Walter Reed 1900 Yellow fever Flavivirus-yellow fever virusRobert Forde & Joseph Dutton 1902 African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma bruce
List 6 ways we can prevent disease & infection?
- Semmelwies’ handwashing
- Lister’s antiseptic technique
- Nightingales Nursing
- Snow;s infection control and epidemiology
- Jenner’s vaccine (field of immunology)Ehrlich’s chemotherapy (magic bullets)
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Leeuwenhoek?
Bacteriology, Protozoology, Mycology, Parasitology, Phycology
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Linneaus?
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Pasteur?
Industrial microbiology, Food and beverage technology
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Semmelweiss Snow?
Infection control and Epidemiology
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Buchner?
Microbial metabolism, Genetics, Genetic engineering
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Koch?
Etiology Koch’s postulates
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Ivanowski?
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Beijerinck Winogradsky?
Environmental and Ecological microbiology
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Gram?
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Lister nightingale?
Antiseptic medical techniques, hospital microbiology
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Jenner Von Bering Kitasato?
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Ehrlich?
What discipline did this Scientist work in-Fleming?
Pharmaceutical micro biology
What are the basic Research Microbe-Centered fields of Microbiology?
Bacteriology, Phycology, Mycology, Protozoology, Parasitology, Virology
What are the basic Research Process-Centered fields of Microbiology?
Microbial Metabolism (Biochemistry:chemical reactions within cells), Microbial Genetics (Functions of DNA&RNA), Environmental microbiology(relationships between microbes and other microbes, organisms, and their environment.
The basic reactions of life
Describe the evolution of biochemistry
- Began with Pasteur’s work on fermentation and Buchner’s discovery of enzymes in yeast extract
- Kluyver and van Niel’s research used microbes used as model systems for biochemical reactionsNow used in practical applications like: designing herbicides and pesticides, diagnosing illnesses and monitoring patient responses, treating metabolic diseases, and drug design.
List the Medical microbiology disciplines?
- Serology: Antibodies in blood serum, particularly as indicators of infection
- Immunology: body’s defenses against specific diseases
- Epidemiology: frequency, distribution and spread of disease
- Etiology: spread of disease
- Infection control: Hygiene in health care settings and control of nosocomial infectionsChemotherapy: development and use of drugs to treat infectious diseases
List the disciplines for applied environmental Microbiology?
- Bioremediation: use of microbes to remove pollutants
- Public health microbiology: sewage treatment, water purification, and control of insects that spread diseaseAgricultural Microbiology: use of microbes to control insect pests
List the Industrial Microbiology(Biotechnology)
- Food and beverage technology: Reduction or elimination of harmful microbes in food and drink
- Parmaceutical microbiology: manufacture of vaccines and antibioticsRecombinant DNA technology: Alteration of microbial genes to synthesize useful products
Define Microbial Genetics?
The study of genes and gene function in bacteria, archaea, and other microorganisms
Define Molecular Biology?
the branch of biology concerned with the nature and function, at the molecular level, of biological phenomena such as RNA and DNA, proteins, and other macromolecules
Define Recombinant DNA Technology?
Using genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications for example: production of human blood-clotting factor in E-Coli to aid in hemophilliacs
Define Gene therapy:
Inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting the desired gene into host cells
Using living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments eg. Recycling of chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
How do we as humans defend against disease?
Serology, Immunology, Chemotherapy
The study of blood serum. Von Behring and Kitasato discovered the existence of chemicals and cells that fight infection in the blood
The study of the body’s defenses against specific pathogens
Fighting infections at the cell level egs. Fleming discovered penicillin and Domagk discovered sulfa drugs
What is the modern Age Biology mission statement?
Microbiology is built on answering questions. The more questions we answer, the more questions we have!!
What infectious diseases are affecting Health Sciences Today?
- MRSA-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- VRE-Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus
- VRSA- Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- MDR-TB- Multidrug resistant Tuberculosis
- New diseases like-Sars, Aids, Hepatitis C, Viral encephalitis
- Diseases Not previously linked to microorganisms now are: gastric ulcers, certain cancers, multiple sclerosis
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as the bacteria and blue-green algae.
any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or meiosis, characteristic of all life forms except bacteria, blue-green algae, and other primitive microorganisms.
What characteristics must an organism have to be considered alive?
- Metabolism-Transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components(Anabolism. Also, decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce with the other phenomena associated with life.
- Reproduction-the ability to produce new individual organisms either asexually, from a single parent organism, or sexually, from at least two parents.
What are the 3 groups of microorganism categories based on Nutrition.?
Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Sparophytic or Saprobic
What are the Traditional Whittaker Classification of microorganism categories?
Prokaryotiae (monera), Protista, Fungae, Plantae, Animalia
What are the Whittaker classifications based on?
Morphology, Metabolism, Molecular Techniques(Fatty Acid Profiles, Protein Differentations, DNA Finger Printing)
What is the Woese-Fox Classification?
- 3 Super Kingdoms (Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria, Eukarya. The system is based on rRNA
- Describe the binomial system of nomenclature?
- The generic name followed by the species name
- Generic part is Capitalized, species is lower cased
- Both are italicized or underlined if italics aren’t available
The degree of relatedness between groups of living things
What process is Phylogeny based on?
The process of evolution-hereditary information in living things changes gradually through time; these changes result in structural and functional changes through many generations.
What are the 2 preconceptions of Phylogeny?
All new species originalte from pre-existing speciesClosely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from a common ancestor
Why is Phylogeny usually represented by a tree?
The tree shows the divergent nature of phylogeny