ancient civ

  1. Neanderthals
    • WHO: the first humans/civilization
    • WHAT: nomadic hunter society
    • WHERE: Europe, Africa, Asia
    • WHEN: 600K BC - 10K BC (Paleolithic)
    • WHY: evidence shows they took time to bury their dead and leave items for the afterlife. Was a distinction between animal and human.
  2. Neolithic Revolution
    • WHO: homo sapiens sapiens
    • WHAT: "new stone" age
    • WHERE: Canaan, Turkey
    • WHEN: 10K years ago
    • WHY: a real change in the development of civilizations, people learn to control their survival as opposed to wandering around, saw advancements like agriculture, metallurgy, domestication, and a military threshold/art of war, groups became larger and cities emerged
  3. Fertile Crescent
    • WHO: Assyrians, Phoenicians, Egyptians
    • WHAT:lush land in between Tigris and Euphrates River
    • WHERE:Mesopotamia
    • WHEN:3000K BC
    • WHY: rivers were important for agriculture bc the area was dry with little rain and natural resources, rivers made the land fertile and made the region habitable and able to sustain civilizations
  4. Marius
    • WHO: Roman General
    • WHAT: became a Roman consul
    • WHERE: Rome
    • WHEN: 100BC
    • WHY: changes the nature of army loyalty from themselves and Rome to their general, opens up the military to lower classes
  5. Nile River
    • WHO: Egyptians
    • WHAT: a river
    • WHERE: Egypt
    • WHEN: 3000K - 1000K BC
    • WHY: located in middle of desert, people flock to river to settle and survive, floods in the delta vital to sustain agriculture and livestock and people,
  6. Maat
    • WHO: Egyptians
    • WHAT: "the force", proper order of things, truth, goodness, balance
    • WHERE: Egypt
    • WHEN: ancient Egypt, 3000K - 1000BC, time of the pharoahs
    • WHY: important aspect of Egyptian religion, the balance of everything, the pharaoh was supposed to maintain it
  7. Yahweh
    • WHO: the one true God, the God of Israel
    • WHAT: all the Bible stories
    • WHERE: Israel
    • WHEN:~1000K BC
    • WHY:monotheistic and mobile; personal relationship, carry God with you
  8. Knossos
    • WHO: Minoans
    • WHAT: a powerful city
    • WHERE: in Crete
    • WHEN: 2800 - 1450BC
    • WHY: strong but unfortified city, no real focus on military, big in trade, art, games/sports; linear A language for record-keeping
  9. Phoenicians
    • WHO: sea peoples
    • WHAT: set up trade colonies around Med
    • WHERE: Tyre, Israel area
    • WHEN: 1000K BC
    • WHY: established more stable kingdom in region that had previously been unstable, trade colonies expanded them around the Med, alphabet was adopted by ancient Greeks
  10. Romulus and Remus
    • WHO: mythical twin sons of Mars
    • WHAT: believed to be the origin of Rome
    • WHERE: Rome
    • WHEN: 400s?
    • WHY: gave Rome ties to the gods and power, elevated the city above normal cities established by mortals
  11. Polis
    • WHO: Greeks
    • WHAT: "city-state"
    • WHERE: Greece
    • WHEN: 900 - 800
    • WHY: central to political organization of Greece, each polis was a village/suburb around the high city ruled by oligarchy/monarchy; polises often rivaled each other
  12. Hoplites
    • WHO: land-owning farmer/warriors
    • WHAT: served as military
    • WHERE: ancient Greece
    • WHEN: 900-800
    • WHY: empowered the land-owning class, a democratic way of warfare b/c it depended on individual participants
  13. Xerxes
    • WHO: Persian ruler
    • WHAT: uh he ruled?
    • WHERE: in Persia
    • WHEN: 400s
    • WHY: because he wanted to
  14. Edict of Maximum Prices
    • WHO: Diocletian
    • WHAT: a price ceiling
    • WHERE: Rome
    • WHEN: ~300
    • WHY: attempt to increase value of currency, only resulted in explosion of black market, size of empire made it difficult to enforce, only destroyed economy further, sort of the last hurrah for Rome before it split into east/west
  15. Philip II
    • WHO: father to Alexander the Great
    • WHAT: unifies a disorganized area
    • WHERE:Macedonia
    • WHEN:~300s
    • WHY: his agenda influenced Alexander to reconquer Greece after his assassination and to conquer Persia
  16. Hellenism
    • WHO: Greeks
    • WHAT: a culture
    • WHERE: Greek
    • WHEN: ~300s BC
    • WHY: a widespread cultural influence of the Greeks pertaining to museums, libraries, art, literature, language, philosophy; carried by conquests of Al the Great all over Europe and Middle East
  17. Ostracism
    • WHO: Greek politicians
    • WHAT: kicking out/removing citizens who were seen as a threat
    • WHERE: Athens
    • WHEN: ~500s BC
    • WHY: saw a lasting form of government b/c anyone who opposed or was thought to oppose the way of things was kicked out of the city; politicians had to maintain favor and approval in society or risk removal
  18. ziggurat
    • WHO: Sumerians
    • WHAT: worship towers
    • WHERE: Sumer
    • WHEN:2800-2350BC
    • WHY: i dont know...diff towers for diff gods...blahblah
  19. Julius Caeser
    • WHO: aristocratic senator
    • WHAT: came to power in 1st Triumvirate
    • WHERE: Rome
    • WHEN: 60BC
    • WHY: successful in Gaul, causing fear in Rome, invades Rome and declares himself dictator for life, increases public works, gave soldiers land, increase size of senate...why is this important? Cuz he did a lot of crap to make Rome powerful and expand. Then they killed him.
  20. 2nd Triumvirate
    • WHO: Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
    • WHAT: 2nd round of 3 leaders taking power
    • WHERE: Rome
    • WHEN: ~30s BC
    • WHY: Octavian becomes Caesar Augustus, shifts loyalty of Rome to himself (republic-->empire), lives a long time, when he dies things are never the same cuz the center of Rome (him) is now gone
  21. 2nd Punic War
    • WHO:Rome v. Carthage
    • WHAT: a war
    • WHERE: the Med
    • WHEN:218-201 BC
    • WHY: Carthage was taking lots of ground, Rome finally decided to attack city of Carthage where they defeat and tax/demilitarize Carthage which lead to 3rd war as news of Carthage rebuilt strength caused a pre-emptive strike and total destruction of Carthage (Rome shifts from "adopting" its conquered ppl to just destroying them)
  22. Battle at Mulvian Bridge
    • WHO: Constantine
    • WHAT: a battle
    • WHERE: Italy
    • WHEN: 312 AD
    • WHY: battle where C was told to put symbol of Christ on his soldiers and he would win, he wins, so he converts and outlaws Christian persecution; aided in spread of Christianity through Roman army
  23. Muhammad
    • WHO: an orphaned Arabian merchant
    • WHAT: prophet of Allah, founder of Islam
    • WHERE: Mecca
    • WHEN: ~610 AD
    • WHY: uh duh. he established Islam.
  24. Justinian
    • WHO: Byzantine emperor
    • WHAT: tried to return to glory days of Rome
    • WHERE: Constantinople
    • WHEN: ~ 530s AD
    • WHY: politically oppressive (ie 30K ppl killed in riot), written law that held everyone accountable, recaptures western Rome empire but too expensive so empire goes bankrupt
  25. Tetrarchy
    • WHO: Diocletian
    • WHAT: 4 rulers
    • WHERE: Roman empire
    • WHEN: 280-304 AD
    • WHY: attempted to resolve issues of succession but it didn't last, paved way for Constantine to become emperor and break down system and move to east
  26. Atilla the Hun
    • WHO: Hun leader
    • WHAT: ruthlessly conquered junk?
    • WHERE: N. Italy
    • WHEN:~400s AD
    • WHY: normally ruthless, he reconciled with pope to not attack Rome > rise in power of church
  27. Caliph
    • WHO: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali
    • WHAT: a successor to Muhammad
    • WHERE: Mecca/Medina
    • WHEN: ~600s AD
    • WHY: continued spread of Islam, lead to division of Shi'ites(belief in another caliph from Ali) and Sunnis (no more caliph) who still war today
  28. Hijira
    • WHO: Muhammad
    • WHAT: "journey"
    • WHERE: Mecca
    • WHEN: 622AD
    • WHY: fled Mecca persecution to Medina where he becomes leader. Why is this important? Cuz he got power
Card Set
ancient civ
ancient history