- 17) Patella (Kneecap): patella is located in front of the knee joint. It is commonly known as the kneecap. It protects and covers the knee joint.
- 18) Fibula: fibula is located in the calf region of the leg. Fibula along with Tibia constitutes the lower leg.
- 19) Tibia: tibia is located in the shin region of the leg. Tibia along with Fibula constitutes the lower leg. Tibia is the larger of the two bones.
- 20) Tarsals: there are 7 tarsal bones in the ankle. Calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone which constitutes the heel.
- 21) Metatarsals: metatarsals are 5 long rod-shaped bones. They are located between the tarsals and the phalanges. Metacarpals of hand are analogous to metatarsals of foot.
- 22) Phalanges: there are 14 phalanges in the toes. The big toe has two phalanges whereas other toes have three phalanges each.
- 5) Clavicle (Collar Bone): clavicle is also known as the collar bone. Clavicle is a slender rod shaped bone located in the collar region.
- 6) Humerus: humerus is located in the upper arm. The head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the pectoral girdle to form a ball and socket joint.
- 7) Sternum (Breast Bone): located at the centre of the thorax, i.e., the chest. It is a dagger-shaped bone that along with the ribs forms the rib cage.
- 8) Ribs: there are 12 pairs of ribs. The last pair of ribs is called as the floating ribs because they are not attached to the sternum.
- 9) Radius: the bone located at the lateral side of the forearm. It extends from the elbow to the wrist. Radius along with Ulna constitutes the forearm.
- 10) Ulna: the bone in the forearm that is aligned with the little finger. Ulna along with Radius constitutes the forearm.
- 1) Cranium: also known as the braincase (or sometimes skull), protects the brain from injury. It serves as the framework for the head.
- 2) Maxilla: the upper jaw bone. It is somewhat pyramidal in shape and has a large cavity called the maxillary sinus.
- 3)Mandible: the lower jaw. Mandible is the largest and the strongest facial bone.
- 4)Cervical vertebra: located at the back of the neck region. There are 7 cervical vertebrae. Atlas is the first cervical vertebra.
- 11) Pelvic girdle: a bony ring located at the base of the spine. It is composed of 2 hip bones which support the lower limbs.
- 12) Coccyx (Tailbone): There are 4 caudal vertebrae at the end of the vertebral column. Caudal vertebrae are separate at birth, but in the later years they fuse together to form one single bone called coccyx (representing remnant of tail).
- 13) Carpals (Wrist bones): Carpals are located in the wrist region. There are 8 nodule-like bones called carpals in the wrist region.
- 14) Metacarpals: 5 small rod-shaped bones located in the palm region.
- 15) Phalanges: there are 14 phalanges in the fingers. The thumb has 2 phalanges whereas other fingers have 3 phalanges each.
- 16)Femur: located in the thigh region. The head of the femur fits into the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle to form a ball and socket joint. It is the longest and the heaviest bone. It supports the weight of the body.
1 top left, going down... 7 on top right, going down
- 1) Quadraceps muscle
- 2) Femur (thigh bone)
- 3) Articular Cartilage
- 4) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
- 5) Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)
- 6) Fibula
- 7) Patella (knee cap)
- 8) Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
- 9) Meniscus
- 10) Patellar Ligaments
- 11) Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
- 12) Tibia (shin bone)
anterior cruciate ligament: the ACL connects your femur to your tibia at the center of the knee. it helps control forward motion and rotation, like keeping your shinbone from sliding out in front of your thighbone.
posterior cruciate ligament: the PCL connects your femur to your tibia at the back of the knee. It helps control the knee's backward motion, like keeping the shinbone from sliding out under the thighbone.
medial collateral ligament: the MCL connects your femur to your tibia along the inside of your knee. It keeps the inner part of your knee stable and helps control the sideways motion of your knee, like keeping it from bending inward.
lateral collateral ligament: the LCL connects your femur to your tibia along the outside of your knee. It keeps the outer part of your knee stable and helps control the sideways motion of your knee, like keeping it from bending outward.
vs Medial Meniscus
- On the top of the tibia, extra pads of cartilage called menisci help absorb the body's weight (if you're talking about one, it's called a meniscus). Each knee has two menisci:
- Medial: inside
- Lateral: outside
A ligament is a tough band of connective tissue that connects various structures such as two bones. Tendons differ from ligaments in that tendons extend from muscle to bone whereas ligaments go from bone to bone as at a joint.
The tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone. A tendon is somewhat flexible, but fibrous and tough. Tendons differ from ligaments in that tendons extend from muscle to bone whereas ligaments go from bone to bone as at a joint.
An injury to a tendon or muscle resulting from overuse or trauma.
A sprain means you've stretched or torn a ligament
Tendonitis describes inflammation, swelling, and irritation of a tendon. Tendonitis is a painful condition that is felt most at the tendon insertion site.
The escape of fluid from the blood vessels or lymphatics into the tissues or a cavity.
related to meniscus injury
A break in bone or cartilage
- displacement of a part.
- complete dislocation: one completely separating the surfaces of a joint.
- compound dislocation: one in which the joint communicates with the air through a wound.
- congenital dislocation of the hip: developmental dysplasia of the hip.
- pathologic dislocation: one due to paralysis, synovitis, infection, or other disease.
- simple dislocation: one in which there is no communication with the air through a wound.
- subspinous dislocation: dislocation of the head of the humerus into the space below the spine of the scapula.dorland()
osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
A condition in which a fragment of bone in a joint is deprived of blood and separates from the rest of the bone, causing soreness and making the joint "give way". Diagnosis is by X-ray. Treatment is usually by casting, although if the fragment has detached completely, arthroscopic surgery may be needed.
Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage.
Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa. A bursa is a tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons near the large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees.
- A condition involving inflammation and sometimes tearing of ligaments within the knee and lower leg. Treatment is by
- rest, casting if necessary, and sometimes surgery.
The condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased.
A group of inherited bleeding disorders in which the ability of blood to clot is impaired.
A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the farthest reaches of the body.
Von Willebrand disease
An inherited bleeding disorder in which a clotting protein called von Willebrand factor is deficient or defective. Von Willebrand factor is made by cells lining the wall of blood vessels. When vessels are damaged, platelets normally clump at the site of the injury. Von Willebrand factor acts as glue to help the platelets clump. Von Willebrand factor is also a carrier of clotting factor VIII, another protein that helps the blood to clot.
Bowing of the legs in children due to a growth disturbance in the proximal tibial epiphysis.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
A debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue of six months or longer duration that is not improved by bed rest and that may be worsened by physical or mental activity.
Absence or cessation of menstruation. Amenorrhea isconventionally divided into primary and secondary amenorrhea.
- Primary amenorrhea -- menstruation never takes place. It fails to occur at puberty.
- Secondary amenorrhea -- menstruation starts but then stops.
related to "female athlete triad"
- Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures, which are often slow to heal and heal poorly. It is more common in older adults, particularly post-menopausal women; in patients on steroids; and in
- those who take steroidal drugs. Unchecked osteoporosis can lead to changes in posture, physical abnormality (particularly the form of hunched back known colloquially as "dowager's hump"), and decreased mobility. Osteoporosis can be detected by using tests that measure bone density.
A disorder characterized by progressive symmetrical paralysis and loss of reflexes, usually beginning in the legs. The paralysis characteristically involves more than one limb (most commonly the legs), is progressive, and is usually proceeds from the end of an extremity toward the torso. Areflexia (loss of reflexes) or hyporeflexia (diminution of reflexes) may occur in the legs and arms.
An autoimmune disease which causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body.
A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's tissues are attacked by its own immune system. Patients with lupus have unusual antibodies in their blood that are targeted against their own body tissues.
One of a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. The muscles of the heart and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other organs as well.
Inflammation of the bone due to infection, for example by the bacteria salmonella or staphylococcus. Osteomyelitis is sometimes a complication of surgery or injury, although infection can also reach bone tissue through the bloodstream. Both the bone and the bone marrow may be infected. Symptoms include deep pain and muscle spasms in the area of inflammation, and fever. Treatment is by bed rest, antibiotics (usually injected locally), and sometimes surgery to remove dead bone tissue.
Sideways (lateral) curving of the spine (the backbone).... "S" shape