Child Development

  1. zone of proximal learning
    a range of activities that a child cannot handle alone but can do with help
  2. scaffolding
    adult assistance fits child's current level of performance
  3. Kohlberg's Moral Stages of Devlopment
    • preconventional
    • conventional
    • post-conventional
  4. Kohlberg's preconventional
    • punishment and obedience orientation - fear of punsihment to behave
    • instrumental purpose orientation -satisfying personal needs
  5. Kohlberg's conventional
    • "good-boy/good-girl" - maintaining approval of friends
    • social-order maintaining - a duty to uphold laws
  6. Kohlberg's postconventional
    • social contract orientation - fair procedures to change laws and protect individuals
    • univerasl ethical principle orientation - abstract universal principles for all humanity
  7. Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
    • Sensory Motor (birth-2y) think by actin on world with senses, reflexes
    • Preoperational Motor (2-7y) use symbols, language and make-believe; relies on intuition instead of logic
    • Concrete Operational (7-11y) conservation
    • Formal Operational (+11y) abstract reasoning
  8. assimilation (Piaget)
    put new information into existing schema (plateau)
  9. accomodation (Piaget)
    new information modifies existing schema (growth spurt)
  10. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
    • basic trust vs. mistrust (birth-1y) warm responsive care v. delayes or handled harshly
    • autonomy v. shame and doubt (1-3y) permit reasonable free choice
    • initiative v. guilt (3-6y) letting them take responsibility w/o expecting too much
    • industry v. inferiority (6-11y) learn to do school and cooperate v. negative experiences
    • identity v. identity diffusion (adolescence) who am I? making values own
    • intimact v. isolation (young adult) establishing initimate ties v. isolation
    • generativity v. stagnation (middle adulthood) giving to the next generation - productive work
    • ego integrity v. despair (old age) life was good v. fear of death
  11. Marcia's Four Indentity Statuses
    • Indenity Achievement - explored alternative and chose values and goals; has a sense of psychosocial well-being
    • Moratorium - delay or holding patter - no commitments - in the process of exploration
    • Identity Foreclosure - committend themselves to values that others have chosen for them
    • Identity Difussion - lack clear direction and not looking for one b/c it is too overwhelming or threatening to them
Card Set
Child Development