Name the 4 methods of establishing new populations.
- 1. Captive Breeding
- 2. Re-introduction
- 3. Augmentation
- 4. Introduction
breeding of species in confinement
What are the three reasons for capative breeding?
- 1. preservation
- 2. Re-establishment into the wild
- 3. biological research
releasing captive-bred or wild caught species into an area of their historic range
releasing captive-bred or wild caught individuals into existing populations to increase its size and gene pool
releasing captive-bred or wild caught individuals into an area outside of their historic range
Name the 5 problems with capative propagation.
- 1. small population size
- 2. expensive
- 3. space and facilites needed
- 4. social behavior different
- 5. original causes of delcline must be considered
International Species Inventory System (ISIS)
keeps genealogical information of species
Name two solutions to captive breeding problems
- 1. studbooks
- 2. routine exchange among zoos
International Union of Conservation of Nature
What are the goals of IUCN?
- 1. facing the extinction crisis
- 2. ecosystem integrity
- 3. Red List- database of status of species
What is CITES?
an international agreement aimed to ensure that international trade in animals and plants does not threaten their survival
What are the products of international wildlife trade?
- 1. food
- 2. exotic leathers
- 3. wooden musical intruments
- 4. timber
- 5. tourist curios
- 6. medicines
What is Appendix I (CITES)?
species that are the most endangered
What is Appendix II (Cites)?
species that are close to being threatened, trade must be controlled
What is Appendix III (CITES)?
species included at the request of a party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation
number of productive acres needed to maintain a given lifestyle
a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce
state at which a stable relationship exists between the human population and capacity of the biosphere to provide resources and process wastes
the use of land and water to sustain production indefinately without environmental deterioration, without the loss of native biodiversity
What are the two sustainable activities?
- 1. use materials in continous cycles
- 2. use continously reliable sources of energy
processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere
What are some non-sustainable activities?
- 1. using materials that are non-renewable
- 2. using renewable resources too rapidly that they don't have time to replenish
- 3. anything that causes continual degradation of the environment
atmospheric greenhouse gases
gases that trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like glass panels of a greenhouse
What are the outgoing energies that atmospheric greenhouse gases trap?
- water vapor
- carbon dioxide
- nitrous oxide
When is carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere?
when solid waste, fossil fuels and wood products are burned
When is methane emitted? (3 ways)
- 1. during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil
- 2. the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills
- 3. the rasing of livestock
When is Nitrous oxide emitted? (2 ways)
- 1. during agricultural and industrial activities
- 2. during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels
What are the three very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occuring?
- 1. hydrofluorocarbons HFCs
- 2. perfluorocarbons PFCs
- 3. sulfur hexafluoride SF6
Why are greenhouse gas concentrations increasing?
- industrial production
- increased agriculture
makes it a federal crime for any person to import or export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, possess, or purchase fish, wildlife or plants obtained illegally
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
ensures that environmental factors are given the same consideration as other factors in decision making by federal agencies
Endangered Species Act (1973)
prevent further endangerment, designation of critical habitat and endangerment status
specific geographic areas considered essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species
a formal process of publishing a proposed federal regulation in the Federal Register and establishing a comment period for public input
those determined to be in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range
those likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future
plants and animals that have been studied and the Service (FWS) has concluded that they should be proposed for addition to species list
non-native to the ecosystem; introduction of this species causes economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
How are invasive species introduced?
- 1. ornamentals
- 2. food source/agriculture
- 3. biotic control
- 4. pet or fur trade
- 5. recreation (hunting and fishing)
- 6. accidental
the cutting down, burning, and damaging of forests
What are the impacts of deforestation?
- 1. erosion and sedimentation
- 2. loss of habitat and species
- 3. increases the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air
- 4. increase in temperature
original rain forest trees are left to provide shade for shade-loving crops like coffee or chocolate; when the farm is abandoned the forest grows back quickly
_____________ is the leading cause of habitat destruction in the U.S.
Around ________ of the world's original forests have disappeared.
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
an agreement among the industrialized nations to reduce the overall emissions of greenhouse gases by 5-7%
Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
World's first and N. America's only voluntary, legally binding rules-based greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading system
Name the renewable sources of energy.
- 1. solar
- 2. wind
- 3. biodiesel
- 4. hydropower and geothermal power
the breakdown of habitat into small patches that are too small to support populations
results in spatial variation in habitat quality in which species are distributed as small, local populations
caused by natural disturbances; increases diversity of habitats and species in an area
in artificial conditions
within the natural habitat
land set aside and protected or managed for the primary purpose of conservation of one or more species of plants and animals
a naturally existing or restored native linear landscape feature that connects two or more larger tracts of essentially similar habitat and functions as either a movement route of individuals or and avenue of gene-flow among native fauna and flora
Nonprofit Land Trusts
protect land through donation and purchase by working with landowners who wish to donate or sell conservation easements
a legal agreement that permanently restricts the development and use of land to ensure protection of its conservation values
What are the consequences of the increase of greenhouse gases?
- evaporation will increase in warmer climates
- increase in average precipitation
- glaciers shrinkage
- sea level rise
- earlier spring arrival
What are the benfits of In-Situ conservation?
- maintain genetic diversity and evolutionary adaptations
- ensures target species and interlinked species are preserved
- cheaper than ex-situ
What are the strategies for habitat conservation?
- set aside land and protect it
- attempt to soften the effects of human use
What are the values of large reserves?
- protect entire communities and ecosystems
- protect more environments
- minimize edge effects
- meet the needs of wide-ranging or top predator species
- perserve genetic diversity
What are the values of small reserves?
- might hold more species under some conditions
- stepping stones between larger reserves
- species with modest space needs
- developed areas
- habitat hetergeneity
- capture many different hatitats
- preserve genetic diversity if migration is possible
If patches are necessary ____________ is better.
When discussing size of habitat reserves, __________ is better than ____________.
Habitat Conservation Consequences
- ecosystems are not conservable in isolation
- ecosystems are dynamic
- reserves will not maintain themselves
- reserves will experience disturbance and will change
What are some of the problems with captive propagation?
- Small popluation size
- space and facilities needed
- social behaviors are different
- original causes of decline must be addressed
- drying from winds
- increased human access to hunting
- edge zones drier and less shady
- changes in temperature and water regimes
What species are vulnerable to fragmentation?
- spp with narrow geographic range or specialized habitat requirements
- spp w/low pop densities
- poor dispersers
- spp with low fecundity
- spp with short life cycles
- ground nesters
- interior spp
- spp vulnerable to human exploitation
- fewer species
- different species
- loss of endemics
- more weedy or edge species
- simpler habitats
- more edge