BIOS 220 Final

  1. Name the 4 methods of establishing new populations.
    • 1. Captive Breeding
    • 2. Re-introduction
    • 3. Augmentation
    • 4. Introduction
  2. Captive Breeding
    breeding of species in confinement
  3. What are the three reasons for capative breeding?
    • 1. preservation
    • 2. Re-establishment into the wild
    • 3. biological research
  4. Re-introduction
    releasing captive-bred or wild caught species into an area of their historic range
  5. Augmentation
    releasing captive-bred or wild caught individuals into existing populations to increase its size and gene pool
  6. Introduction
    releasing captive-bred or wild caught individuals into an area outside of their historic range
  7. Name the 5 problems with capative propagation.
    • 1. small population size
    • 2. expensive
    • 3. space and facilites needed
    • 4. social behavior different
    • 5. original causes of delcline must be considered
  8. International Species Inventory System (ISIS)
    keeps genealogical information of species
  9. Name two solutions to captive breeding problems
    • 1. studbooks
    • 2. routine exchange among zoos
  10. IUCN
    International Union of Conservation of Nature
  11. What are the goals of IUCN?
    • 1. facing the extinction crisis
    • 2. ecosystem integrity
    • 3. Red List- database of status of species
  12. What is CITES?
    an international agreement aimed to ensure that international trade in animals and plants does not threaten their survival
  13. What are the products of international wildlife trade?
    • 1. food
    • 2. exotic leathers
    • 3. wooden musical intruments
    • 4. timber
    • 5. tourist curios
    • 6. medicines
  14. What is Appendix I (CITES)?
    species that are the most endangered
  15. What is Appendix II (Cites)?
    species that are close to being threatened, trade must be controlled
  16. What is Appendix III (CITES)?
    species included at the request of a party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation
  17. Ecological Footprint
    number of productive acres needed to maintain a given lifestyle
  18. Carbon Footprint
    a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce
  19. Sustainability
    state at which a stable relationship exists between the human population and capacity of the biosphere to provide resources and process wastes
  20. sustainable development
    the use of land and water to sustain production indefinately without environmental deterioration, without the loss of native biodiversity
  21. What are the two sustainable activities?
    • 1. use materials in continous cycles
    • 2. use continously reliable sources of energy
  22. carbon sequestration
    processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere
  23. What are some non-sustainable activities?
    • 1. using materials that are non-renewable
    • 2. using renewable resources too rapidly that they don't have time to replenish
    • 3. anything that causes continual degradation of the environment
  24. atmospheric greenhouse gases
    gases that trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like glass panels of a greenhouse
  25. What are the outgoing energies that atmospheric greenhouse gases trap?
    • water vapor
    • carbon dioxide
    • methane
    • nitrous oxide
    • ozone
  26. When is carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere?
    when solid waste, fossil fuels and wood products are burned
  27. When is methane emitted? (3 ways)
    • 1. during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil
    • 2. the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills
    • 3. the rasing of livestock
  28. When is Nitrous oxide emitted? (2 ways)
    • 1. during agricultural and industrial activities
    • 2. during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels
  29. What are the three very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occuring?
    • 1. hydrofluorocarbons HFCs
    • 2. perfluorocarbons PFCs
    • 3. sulfur hexafluoride SF6
  30. Why are greenhouse gas concentrations increasing?
    • industrial production
    • transporation
    • increased agriculture
    • deforestation
    • landfills
    • mining
  31. Lacey Act
    makes it a federal crime for any person to import or export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, possess, or purchase fish, wildlife or plants obtained illegally
  32. National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
    ensures that environmental factors are given the same consideration as other factors in decision making by federal agencies
  33. Endangered Species Act (1973)
    prevent further endangerment, designation of critical habitat and endangerment status
  34. Critical Habitat
    specific geographic areas considered essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species
  35. propose
    a formal process of publishing a proposed federal regulation in the Federal Register and establishing a comment period for public input
  36. Endangered Species
    those determined to be in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range
  37. Threatened Species
    those likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future
  38. candidate species
    plants and animals that have been studied and the Service (FWS) has concluded that they should be proposed for addition to species list
  39. invasive species
    non-native to the ecosystem; introduction of this species causes economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
  40. How are invasive species introduced?
    • 1. ornamentals
    • 2. food source/agriculture
    • 3. biotic control
    • 4. pet or fur trade
    • 5. recreation (hunting and fishing)
    • 6. accidental
  41. deforestation
    the cutting down, burning, and damaging of forests
  42. What are the impacts of deforestation?
    • 1. erosion and sedimentation
    • 2. loss of habitat and species
    • 3. increases the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air
    • 4. increase in temperature
  43. shade agricultural
    original rain forest trees are left to provide shade for shade-loving crops like coffee or chocolate; when the farm is abandoned the forest grows back quickly
  44. _____________ is the leading cause of habitat destruction in the U.S.
    Agricultural development
  45. Around ________ of the world's original forests have disappeared.
  46. Kyoto Protocol (1997)
    an agreement among the industrialized nations to reduce the overall emissions of greenhouse gases by 5-7%
  47. Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
    World's first and N. America's only voluntary, legally binding rules-based greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading system
  48. Name the renewable sources of energy.
    • 1. solar
    • 2. wind
    • 3. biodiesel
    • 4. hydropower and geothermal power
  49. habitat fragmentation
    the breakdown of habitat into small patches that are too small to support populations
  50. patchiness
    results in spatial variation in habitat quality in which species are distributed as small, local populations
  51. natural heterogeneity
    caused by natural disturbances; increases diversity of habitats and species in an area
  52. ex-situ
    in artificial conditions
  53. in-situ
    within the natural habitat
  54. habitat reserves
    land set aside and protected or managed for the primary purpose of conservation of one or more species of plants and animals
  55. corridors
    a naturally existing or restored native linear landscape feature that connects two or more larger tracts of essentially similar habitat and functions as either a movement route of individuals or and avenue of gene-flow among native fauna and flora
  56. Nonprofit Land Trusts
    protect land through donation and purchase by working with landowners who wish to donate or sell conservation easements
  57. Conservation easements
    a legal agreement that permanently restricts the development and use of land to ensure protection of its conservation values
  58. What are the consequences of the increase of greenhouse gases?
    • evaporation will increase in warmer climates
    • increase in average precipitation
    • glaciers shrinkage
    • sea level rise
    • earlier spring arrival
  59. What are the benfits of In-Situ conservation?
    • maintain genetic diversity and evolutionary adaptations
    • ensures target species and interlinked species are preserved
    • cheaper than ex-situ
  60. What are the strategies for habitat conservation?
    • set aside land and protect it
    • attempt to soften the effects of human use
  61. What are the values of large reserves?
    • protect entire communities and ecosystems
    • protect more environments
    • minimize edge effects
    • meet the needs of wide-ranging or top predator species
    • perserve genetic diversity
  62. What are the values of small reserves?
    • might hold more species under some conditions
    • stepping stones between larger reserves
    • species with modest space needs
    • developed areas
    • habitat hetergeneity
    • capture many different hatitats
    • preserve genetic diversity if migration is possible
  63. If patches are necessary ____________ is better.
  64. When discussing size of habitat reserves, __________ is better than ____________.
    larger; smaller
  65. Habitat Conservation Consequences
    • ecosystems are not conservable in isolation
    • ecosystems are dynamic
    • reserves will not maintain themselves
    • reserves will experience disturbance and will change
  66. What are some of the problems with captive propagation?
    • Small popluation size
    • expensive
    • space and facilities needed
    • social behaviors are different
    • original causes of decline must be addressed
  67. Edge Effects
    • drying from winds
    • increased human access to hunting
    • edge zones drier and less shady
    • changes in temperature and water regimes
  68. What species are vulnerable to fragmentation?
    • spp with narrow geographic range or specialized habitat requirements
    • spp w/low pop densities
    • poor dispersers
    • spp with low fecundity
    • spp with short life cycles
    • ground nesters
    • interior spp
    • spp vulnerable to human exploitation
  69. Fragmentation
    • fewer species
    • different species
    • loss of endemics
    • more weedy or edge species
    • simpler habitats
    • more edge
Card Set
BIOS 220 Final