1. Phonemes are classified as....
    • Vowels (and dipthongs)
    • Consonants
  2. There are____consonants in English
  3. Consonants are classified by 3 main features:
    • PLACE
    • MANNER
    • VOICE
  4. PLACE is a _____ in the vocal tract
  5. Place involves the....?
    (moveable and fixed articulators)
    • Tongue, Lips, velum, mandible (moveable)
    • Teeth, hard palate, alveolar ridge (fixed)
  6. Bilabial (place descriptors)
    Bring the lips together (both lips are involved)
  7. Labiodental (place descriptors)
    Lips AND teeth are involved in making sound
  8. Linguadental (place descriptors)
    Teeth AND tongue are involved in making sounds
  9. *Lingua-alveolar (place descriptors)
    Tongue and point of constriction (alevolar ridge)
  10. Linguapalatal (place descriptors)
    Flat part of tongue and hard pallet are involved
  11. *Linguavelar (place descriptors)
    BACK of tongue and velum
  12. Glottal (place descriptors)
    One phoneme "H"
  13. Manner is....
    The way in which the valves of the vocal tract constrict the airway
  14. Stop (plosive) (manner descriptor)
    Complete blockage of airstream then a quick release.
  15. Fricative (manner descrip)
    • Severe constriction of the articulators through which the air passes
    • (air continues)
  16. Affricate (manner descrip)
    • phoneme begins like a stop and ends like a fricative
    • ex: "ch" asin chair J'" as in juice
  17. Nasal (manner descrip)
    • Air flows through nasal cavity because velopharyngeal port is open and also air flows into the mouth
    • ex: m, n, ng
  18. Lateral (manner develp)
    • Air is released on both sides of the tongue
    • aka as a liquid
  19. Rhotic (manner develop)
    • Air exits the mouth with the tongue in either a bunched or turned-back position.
    • aka as a liquid
  20. Glides (manner develp)
    • Produced by gradually changing the shape of the articulators
    • A sound "glides" into another.
    • ie" wine, yes (w, y)
  21. Voice
    • A consonant is either voiced or voiceless
    • A sounds either uses laryngeal vibration or it doesn't
  22. ___% of the consonants are voiced or voiceless
  23. Resonant phonemes...
    • response occurs in the entire vocal tract
    • includes nasals, liquids, and glides
  24. Nonresonant phonemes..
    • resonance occurs in a more limited area of vocal tract (oral)
    • includes stops, fricatives, affricates
  25. Description for /m/ would be...
    voiced, bilabial, nasal
  26. The description for /s/ would be...
    voiceless, lingua-alveolar, fricative
  27. PLACE of constriction in the vocal tract
    • Front, central, back
    • (where the tongue is)
  28. DEGREE of constriction within the vocal tract
    • High, mid, low
    • (where tongue is)
  29. Degree of lip rounding only pertains to...
    high and mid back vowels
  30. Dipthongs
    • A blend of 2 vowels within the same syllable
    • ex: fail, foil
  31. Articulation
    • The MOTOR act of producing a phoneme, requires neuromuscular coordination between the nervous system and the articulators
    • (tongue, lips, etc)
  32. Phonology
    • A knowledge of the sounds of the language and the rules that govern their production and combination (more rule based)
    • ex: child tried to say cup and says cu
  33. Customary production: (sanders)
    point at which 50% of children used a sound correctly in two out of 3 word positions
  34. Upper or outside limit of normalcy: (sanders)
    90% of the children used each sound correctly in all 3 word positions
  35. SODA (traditional analysis of disordered phonology/articulation)
    • Substitutions
    • Omission
    • Distortions
    • Addition
  36. Substitutions
    replacing one sound with another sound. The substitution usually approximates the sound it replaces
  37. Omission
    • Sounds omitted from a word
    • Usually a words final sound
  38. Distortions
    • Imprecise production of airstream in some way.
    • ex: lisps. son...thon
  39. Addition
    • Inappropiate insertion of a sound within a word
    • ex: black.....balack
  40. Phonological Process
    • 1.Serve to simplify the phonological system
    • 2.They are NOT random errors
    • 3. The use of processes is considered normal
    • ie: cu for cup and pane for plane
  41. Phonological processes have been applied to...
    the speech patterns of older children w/delayed phonological development.
  42. Developmental Impairment
    • Idiopathic/functional
    • Sound system is usually delayed, immature
    • ex: 8 yr old uses 3 yr olds speech
  43. Language-Learning Disabilities
    There is a high percent of language impairment in children who have a phonological disorder (60%)
  44. Hearing Disorders
    • Children with a history of otitis media are more likely to have a/p disorders
    • Deaf speech has a distinct pattern (voicing and vowel errors)
  45. Dysarthrias
    • (motor speech dis)
    • Due to neuromuscular impairment (stroke, tumor)
    • can affect articulation, respiration, phonation, resonance(velum), swallowing)
    • paralysis/paresis
    • Results: imprecise articulatory movements
  46. Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS)
    Apraxia is the impairment in PROGRAMMING the speech mechanism to select, plan, organize, and initiate a motor pattern
  47. DAS info:
    • DAS is more controversial
    • Damage likely to Broca's area
    • Etiology is neurological, not from trauma
  48. Cleft Palate
    • Articulation errors due to structural deviations of palate, velum, lip, alveolar ridge
    • more difficulty with "pressure" sounds such as stops and fricatives
    • voice may be affected
    • Nasal sounds are easy for them
  49. Dental Abnormalities
    • Malocclusions - upper and lower teeth arent aligned properly
    • Teeth missing
  50. Tongue abnormalities
    • Lingual frenum too short - band under tongue
    • -Ankyloglossia, tongue tie
    • Size
    • Microglossia(too large) Macroglossia(too small)
    • Removal
    • Glossectomy
  51. A child has an artic/phono disorder if...
    • The error sound occurs frequently
    • The sound on which an error is produced correctly by chil the same age
    • The error sound is NOT found in the phoneme system of that persons dialect
  52. Intellectual capacity (cognition)
    Learning, perceiving, understanding, concept processing, appropriate responding
  53. Sensory-perceptual capacities
    • Audition, tactile experiences, vision
    • Perception involves discrimination, retention, retrieval
  54. Linguistic capacity
    • Innate capacity to learn language
    • (born with it)
  55. Neurological capacity
    Child has nervous system which is capable of allowing nurturing sociocommunicative interaction
  56. All these capacities are dependent upon the________.
    Linguistic Enviroment
  57. Communication begins at....
    • BIRTH
    • Birth cry
    • Eye gaze
    • Random movements
  58. Prelinguistic/Preverbal stage last from birth to about the ______ when ______ words appear
    • First birthday
    • True
  59. Communication occurs reciprocally between.....
    caregiver/parent and newborn
  60. How do parents establish this early from of communication?
    Touching and talking to your child
  61. Much of the early communication is _______on the part of the infant but it gradually emerges as _____ over time
    • Reflexive
    • Meaningful
  62. In the PERLOCUTIONARY stage of development, Bonding or attachment is what?
    First few months are spent attaching to parents, going through rituals such as turn-taking, action/gaze.
  63. Laughter emerges when?
    3-4 months
  64. Gooing and cooing occurs when? and what does it signal?
    • 2-3 months
    • signals discomfort, pain and pleasure
  65. In a 3 month, the myelin sheath developments how?
    • Front to back of mouth (myelinization)
    • The muscles of the oral cavity are better controlled
  66. Infants produce sounds from every language, but the produce sounds from their own language when?
    more frequently
  67. ILLOCUTIONARY stage of development is from _____ to ____
    • 6-12 months ( no true words yet)
    • modes for expression continue to be gestural and vocal
  68. Intentionality
    Child uses grasping or reaching to gain attention, then pairs it with vocalization until finally the child can use true words
  69. Reduplicated babbling occurs at what age?
    • 6-7 months
    • ie:mamama
  70. at 6-7 months the child produces what? and ____babies reduce their vocal play at this time.
    • reconizable vowels and consonants
    • Deaf
  71. first word usually appears at what age?
    (echolalic stage)
    8-12 months (the first birthday)
  72. Nelson says that the____month is average for a babies first word.
    and the range is ___ to ___months
    • 13th
    • 10-20 months
  73. Locutionary stage...
    • child is using conventional verbalizations to signal attention (first with then w/o gestures)
    • (gestures go away and words stay)
  74. By 18 months (toddler) they have a ____word range
  75. the 14 grammatical morphemes are used around ______(age)
    18-24 months....till 4-5 years
  76. MLU is calculated by...
    Adding the total # of morphemes and dividing by the total number of utterances
  77. by 24 months, the child uses ___ to___words.
  78. 2-3 years of age, the child begins to...
    • change topic
    • begins code switching
    • can follow commands
  79. at 2-3 years of age, the childs expressive vocab is_______words.
    1500-1600 words
  80. At 5 years of age...
    • can understand 3-part command
    • understands concepts(time, present, future)
    • can tell novel
  81. At 5 years of age the childs expressive vocab is around_____words.
  82. Language Impairment
    inability to understand or speak the language code as well as same age-peers.
  83. What may be affected in language impairment?
    • FORM
    • USE
  84. FORM
  85. Syntax
    • I want more juice
    • I'm going for a ride
  86. Content
    • Slow vocab growth
    • Word finding problems
    • talks about concrete things, not abstract
    • ex: all small children are babies
    • -All four legged animals are dogs
  87. USE
    • Difficulty staying on topic
    • May have a hard time initiating a convo
    • may interrupt
    • can't code switch
  88. These language disorders can be...
    • expressive
    • Receptive
    • OR
    • both
  89. Determining language delay....3 "ages"...
    • Chronological age
    • Mental age
    • Language age
  90. With normal children ___=_____=____
  91. But with Language impairment children....____=_____
    • CA=MA but CA and MA are NOT equal to LA
    • (LA doesn't meet requirements)
  92. A child with mental retardation....
    LA and MA are less than CA
  93. a child with an IQ below 70 is considered what?
    mentally retarded
  94. Mental retardation's onset is before age____.
  95. ____% of the pop is mentally retarded
  96. Causes of mental retardation
    • Down syndrome
    • Fragile X
    • Neonatal distress
    • Postnatal infections
    • maternal infections during pregnancy
  97. Down syndrome is also known as....
    • Trisomy 21
    • 47 chromosomes
  98. Fragile X is...
    • Inherited
    • most common in males
  99. Neonatal distress
    • anoxia, at birth (w/o oxygen)
    • sometimes cord is wrapped around baby
  100. Postnatal infections
    • meningitis
    • can happen at any age, but young is critical
  101. Maternal infections during pregnancy
    • Rubella
    • chicken pox
    • toxins and chemical
    • brain diseases
  102. __-____% of children with LD have an associated language disability
  103. Other typical LD problems are...
    Short attention span, distractability, poor memory, difficulty learning, lack of motor coordination
  104. To have LD means you must be...
    School age
  105. more ___than ____are affected
    • males
    • females
  106. ADD or ADHD is characterized by ______and ____with some children experiencing hyperactivity, child is highly distractable (can't screen out important stimuli)
    • Inattention
    • Impulsivity
  107. ADHD or ADD kids may have _____problems and may also have a _____ disability
    • emotional
    • learning
  108. Their language disabilities are usually in the area of______
  109. Child may be managed ______ and behaviorally.
  110. Most common medication for ADHD and ADD is...
  111. Idiopathic (SLI)
    There is no known cause for the LD
  112. Idiopathics are are at high risk for______
    experiencing Academic Failure
  113. Interaction abilities and _______skills may seem socially inappropriate.
  114. Uneven and ______ pattern of linguistic development
  115. There are no sensory, intecllectual, motor , or social emotional deficits in...
  116. Profound emotional and behavioral disorder is known as....
    • persuasive development disorder (PDD)
    • Unknown etiology
  117. Milder end of the spectrum is..
    asberger's syndrome
  118. for many years autism was rare: ____children per 10,000 live births
  119. The rate of autism has increased with figures as high as ____ per 10,000
  120. Boys out number girls ____ to ____
    4 to 1
  121. one in every ____are diagnosed with autism
  122. between 25-60% of individuals with autism remain _______ throughout their life
  123. The behaviors for autism must have been present before____ months
  124. TBI
    Traumatic brain injury
  125. _____deficits include difficulties in perception, memory, reasoning, and problem solving.
  126. Socioenviromental factors
    • Isolation
    • Abuse
    • Neglect
  127. ____% of alcohol.drug exposed children may show communication disorders
  128. Fetal exposure to crack cocaine
    Symptoms seem to be hyperactivity, impulsivity, and learning and memory problems
  129. select goals based on ______report
  130. Begin working with ______ language deficits, if any and move toward _____ language deficits
    • Receptive
    • Expressive
Card Set
test two