chapter 7.txt

  1. what are the stages of language development?
    baby talk, babbling, holophrase, overextentsion/underextension, telegraphic speech
  2. what is baby talk?
    speech taht adults use when talking whith babies that involve the use of shorter sentences with a highter, more meladious pitch.
  3. what is babbling?
    thythmic repetition of various syllables including both consonants and vowels (6-7) months
  4. what is holophrase?
    a word used by an infant to express a complete idea (at 1 year of age)
  5. what is overextension and underextension?
    overextension=application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word, underextension= failiure to apply a new word more generally to objects taht are included within the meaning of the word. (18 months)
  6. what is telegraphic speech?
    using two word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs (18-25 months)
  7. what is piaget's theory of development?
    assumes that cognitive development stems from a childs adaptative to the environment, and that childern attempt to promote their survival by trying to learn about their enbironment.
  8. Piget claimed child organises knowlege into what? and what is it?
    smemes= frameworks for our kinowlege about people, objects , events, and actions
  9. according to piaget what 2 processes are involved in cognitive adaptation?
    assimilation=interpretation of new experiences in terms of our existing schemas, accomodation=modification of current schemas to allow for new experiences
  10. what are pigets states of cognitive development and the ages?
    sensorimotor (births-2 years). preoperational (2-6 years), concrete operational (6-12 years), and formal opperational (12 years through adulthood)
  11. what is pigeats sensorimortor stage? (birth-2years)
    children use senses and motor abilities to learn about the world and develop oject permanace
  12. what is piagets properational stage? (2-6 years)
    childern use symbolic thinking to understand the world but remain egocentric and lock the mental operations that alow logical thinking
  13. what is piagets concrete operational stage? (6-12 years)
    children gain cognitive operation for logical thinking about concrete events, understand conservation, perform mathematical operations, but connot reason abstraction
  14. what is piagets formal operational stage? (12-adulthood)
    Further development of congnitive operations eables adolescents to engage in abstract thinking and hypothetical deductive reasoning
  15. What are the three levels of Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning? (Heintz wife dying of cancer drug story... what would u do)
    Preconvetnioanl morality, conventional morality, postconventional morality
  16. What are the levels in the PRECONVENTIONAL STAGE and what do they consist of in Kohlenbergs theory? external, no underdtanding of principles, narcisistic
    stage 1=fear of punishement, stage 2-reciprical ( compliance with rules to obtain rewards and satisfy own needs)
  17. What are the levels in the CONVANTIONAL MORALITY and what do they consist of in Kohlenbergs theory? external, principles are imporant (social group)
    stage 3=good boy nice girl (get approval of others), stage 4=law and order (duty to uphold laws and rules for their own sake)
  18. What are the levels in the POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY and what do they consist of in Kohlenbergs theory? (internal, principled (internal things)
    stage 5=social contract (obeys rurels because they are necessary for social order but understands rules are relative) stage 6 unviversal ethical thinker (self condemnation for violating universal ethical principles based on human rights)
  19. what is Erik Ericksons theory?
    Emphisizes the impact of society and culture upon development but he also considered both personality development and social development
  20. what are the 8 stages of Eriksons psychological theaory and ages?
    trust vs mistrust (birth to 1 year), autonomy vs shame and dought (1-2 years), Initiatives vs guilt ( 3-5 years), Industry vs inferiority ( 5 to puperty), Identity vs role confusion (adolescent), Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood), Generality vs stagnation (middle adulthood), Integrity vs dispair (late adulthood)
  21. what is vytgotsky's theory of proximal development?
    We are social animlas, so much of our learning occurs witin social interactions. Culture impacts both the content and processes of childs cognitive development becasuse childs cognitive development occurs within this cultural context.
  22. What are the two major thoritical concepts in vygothkys theory?
    zone of proximal development and scaffolding.
  23. what is the zone of proximal development?
    diference beweeen what a child can actually do and waht the child coudl do with the help of others.
  24. what is scaffolding?
    the teacher adjusts the level of help in relation ot the childs level of performance, while directing the childs learning progress toward the upper level of the childs zone of proximal development.
  25. what are the 3 types of attachements?
    secure, unsecure avaident, and insecure-resistent
  26. what is secure attachemnt?
    indicated by the infant exploring the situation freely inthe presence of tehmotehr, but displaying distress when the motehr leaves, and responding enthusiasrically when the mother returns
  27. what is insecure-avoident attachement?
    indicated by exploriation but minimal interest in the mother, the infant showing littel distress when the mother leaves, and avoiding her when she returns.
  28. what is Insecure-ambivalent attachement?
    indicated by the infant seeking closenses to the mother and not exploring the situation, high levels of distress when the matter leaves, and abivalent behavior when she returns by alternatively clinging to and pushing away from her
  29. What is insecure disorganized attachement?
    type of attachement indicated by the infants confusion when the mother leaves and returns
  30. what are the four types of parenting styles?
    authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, rejecting-neglecting
  31. what is the authoritarian parent?
    demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children desires and communicate poorly with their children
  32. what is authoritative parents?
    are demanding but set rational limits for their childern and communicate well with their children
  33. what is pemissive parent?
    make few demand and are ovverly responsive to their childrens desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please
  34. what is uninvolved parent?
    minimize both the time they spend with the children and their emotional involvement with them
Card Set
chapter 7.txt
Chapter 7 Development Psychology