Chapter 10: Nervous System; Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  1. electroencephalogram
    record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
  2. evoked potentials
    record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders - also used to monitor the neurological function of patients during surgery
  3. nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
    electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose various peripheral nervous system diseases
  4. polysomnography (PSG)
    recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
  5. lumbar puncture (LP)
    introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
  6. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomical structues (especially soft tissue), such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
  7. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
    use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels - useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
  8. intracranial MRA
    magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
  9. extracranial MRA
    magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
  10. nuclear medicine imaging
    radionuclide organ imaging
  11. SPECT brain scan (single photon emission computed tomography)
    scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of the brian after administration of radioactive isotopes
  12. positron emission tomography (PET)
    technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology - used to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, etc.; in provides greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often because of cost and limited availablity of the radioisotopes
  13. radiography
    x-ray imaging
  14. cerebral angiogram
    x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
  15. computed tomography (of the head)
    computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within
  16. myelogram
    x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
  17. reflex testing
    test performed to observe th body's response to a stimulus
  18. deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
    involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive findings are noted when there is either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses:

    • no response
    • 1+ diminished response
    • 2+ normal response
    • 3+ more brisk than average response
    • 4+ hyperactive response
  19. Babinski sign or reflex
    pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
  20. transcranial sonogram
    image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels - used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
Card Set
Chapter 10: Nervous System; Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
Quiz 4