1. Chromosome
    rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
  2. Histone
    DNA in eukaryotic cells wraps tightly around proteins
  3. Chromatid
    half of the chromosome, each chromosome consists of two identical halves
  4. Centromere
    the point where 2 chromatids are attached
  5. Chromatin
    less tightly coiled DNA- protein complex
  6. Sex Chromosome
    chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism; may also carry genes for other characteristics
  7. Autosome
    all of the other chromosomes in an organism
  8. Homologous Chromosome
    two copies of each autosome are called H.C. or homologues, these are the same
  9. Karyotype
    photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human
  10. Diploid
    cells having two sets of chromosomes
  11. Haploid
    cells that contain only one set of chromosomes examples sperm/egg cells
  12. Binary Fission
    the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring
  13. Mitosis
    new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell, occurs in organisms under going growth, development, repair, or sexual reproduction
  14. Asexual Reproduction
    production of offspring from one parent
  15. Meiosis
    occurs during the formation of gametes, which are haploid reproductive cells it reduces the chromosome number by half in new cells
  16. Gamete
    haploid reproductive cells
  17. Interphase
    time between cell divisons, divided into 3 phases
  18. Cytokineses
    the division of the cells cytoplasm
  19. Prophase
    the first phase of mitosis
  20. Spindle Fibers
    microtubules radiate from the centrosomes in preparation for metaphase
  21. Metaphase
    second phase of mitosis
  22. Anaphase
    third phase, chromatids of each chromosome seperate at the centeromere and slowly move, centromere first, toward opposite poles of the dividing cell. After the chromatids seperate, they are considered to be individual chromosomes
  23. Telophase
    phase 4 after the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell, the spindle fibers disassemble, and the chromosomes return to a less tightly coiled chromatin state. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes, and a nucleolus forms in each of the newly forming cells
  24. Cell Plate
    in plant cells where vesicles from the Golgi Apparatus join together at the dividing cell
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