Chapter 10: Nervous System; Diagnostic Terms

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  1. agnosia
    any of many types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
  2. astereognosis
    inability to judge the form of an object by touch
  3. atopognosis
    inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
  4. Alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  5. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing to total paralysis and death - also known as Lou Gehrig disease
  6. cerebral palsy (CP)
    condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
  7. cerebrovascular disease
    disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  8. cerebral arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries of the brain
  9. cerebral atherosclerosis
    condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
  10. cerebral aneurysm
    dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
  11. cerebral thrombosis
    presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
  12. cerebral embolism
    obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
  13. cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke
    damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease
  14. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment) - often precedes a CVA
  15. carotid TIA
    ischemia of the anterior circulation of the brain
  16. vertebrobasilar TIA
    ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain
  17. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  18. epilepsy
    disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
  19. tonic-clonic
    stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups - previously terms grand mal (big bad) seizure
  20. absence
    seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement - previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
  21. partial
    seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
  22. glioma
    tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
  23. herniated disk
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  24. herpes zoster
    viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally - also known as shingles
  25. Huntington disease (HD)
    hereditary disease of the central nervous system
  26. Huntington chorea
    characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
  27. hydrocephalus/hydrocephaly
    abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
  28. meningioma
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
  29. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  30. migraine headache
    paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilteral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
  31. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) or nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
  32. myasthenia gravis
    autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progessive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest
  33. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  34. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
  35. Parkinson disease
    condition of slowly progessive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements, usually occurring later in life
  36. plegia
  37. hemiplegia
    paralysis on one side of the body
  38. paraplegia
    paralysis from the waist down
  39. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs
  40. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
  41. polyneuritis
    inflammation involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutritional deficiency such as a lack of thiamine
  42. reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)
    condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain perception, usually as the result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, tissue edema, joint tenderness, changes in skin color and temperature, and abnormal sweating at the pain site - decreased mobility caused by pain can lead to muscle atrophy and loss of motor funciton
  43. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
  44. spina bifida
    congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching or spinal membranes or tissue
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Chapter 10: Nervous System; Diagnostic Terms
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