A&P Blood

  1. Plasma
    Makes up 55% of blood

    Liquid matrix of the blood

    92% water - 8% ionic salts and organic molecules
  2. Functions of Blood
    Transport O2, CO2, and nutrients

    Defense against pathogens and blood loss

    Regulation of body temperature and pH
  3. Salts
    Help maintain osmotic pressure and pH
  4. Glucose and Amino Acids
    Provide nutrients to cells

    Organic molecules
  5. Urea
    Nitrogenous Waste

    Organic molecule
  6. Plasma Protiens
    Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogin, Antibodies, and Hormones
  7. Albumin
    Maintains osmotic pressure
  8. Globulins
    Provide immunity
  9. Fibrinogin
    Assists with clotting
  10. Hematopoisis
    Formation of blood cells and platelets
  11. Multipotent Stem Cells
    Red blood cells that differentiate into blood cells
  12. RBCs
    4-5 million/mm

    Each cell contains 200 million (Hg) hemoglobin molecules

    Transport O2

    No nucleus
  13. Oxyhemoglobin
    Bright red

    Hg that has combined with O2

    Found in lungs
  14. Deoxyhemoglobin
    Maroon color

    Hg that is not combined with O2

    Found in tissues
  15. WBCs

    Larger than RBCs

    Fight infection and destroy dead and dying cells (kill cancer cells)
  16. Formation of RBCs
    Erythropoietin stimulates mitosis of stem cells to speed up the production and maturation of RBCs

    Released when RBCs are low (hemorrhage or disease)
  17. Formation of WBCs
    Formed by stem cells in red bone marrow

    Produce their own growth factor that circulates from the blood to the bone marrow to stimulate their own production
  18. 2 Types of WBCs
    Agranular (2 types)

    Granular (3 types)
  19. Neutrophils
    Most abundant of the WBCs

    First to respond to infection (macrophages)

    Granular Leukocyte
  20. Eosinophils
    Respond to parasitic worm infections

    Granular Leukocyte
  21. Basophils
    Respond to allergens by releasing histamine and heparin

    Granular Leukocyte
  22. Lymphocytes
    B - produce antibodies against antigens

    T - directly attack and destroy pathogens

    Agranular Leukocyte
  23. Monocytes
    Largest of WBCs

    Reside in tissues

    Phagocytize pathogens, old cells, and cellular debris

    Stimulate other WBCs to defend the body

    Agranular Leukocyte
  24. Platelets
    150,000 - 300,000/mm

    Fragments of cells

    200 billion formed a day

    no nucleus

    live for only ten days unless they are used sooner
  25. Hemostasis
    Cessation of bleeding

    • 1 - tissue damage
    • 2 - vascular spasm
    • 3 - platelet plug formation
    • 4 - coagulation begins
    • - a - prethrombin activator
    • - b - prethrommbin release
    • - c - thrombin release
    • - d - fibrinogen
    • - e - fibrin
    • - f - blood clot formation
  26. Capillary Exchange
    1 - Arterial end - blood pressure highest

    2 - Midsection and Capillary Bed - Diffusion is the greatest

    3 - Venous end - osmotic pressure is the greatest
  27. Lymphatic Capillaries
    System of one way vessels

    Absorb excess tissue fluid at the site of blood capillaries

    Intertwined with blood capillaries

    Empty into the subclavian veins
  28. Edema
    Localized swelling that occurs when tissue fluid accumulates in the body

    Can be caused by increased capillary permiability, decreased tissue uptake, or increased venous pressure
  29. Agglutinination
    Clumping of RBCs

    Can be cause by transfusion of the wrong bllod type
  30. Antigen vs. Antibody
    Antigen - forign substance

    Antibody - protein produced in response to an antigen
  31. Type A blood
    - A antigen

    + Anti-B antibodies
  32. Type B Blood
    - B antigen

    + Antti-A antibodies
  33. Type O Blood
    - O antigens

    +Anti-A and B antibodies

    Universal Donor
  34. Type AB Blood
    - A or B antigens

    + no antibodies

    Universal Recipient
  35. Autotransfusion
    Transfusion with the persons own blood
  36. Rh Sensitivity
    Occurs when a Rh - woman concieves a Rh + infant

    Mother is given Rhogan injections
  37. Anemia
    Low RBCs of insufficient Hg on the RBCs
  38. Sickle Cell
    Hereditary disorder where the RBCs are "sickle shaped"
  39. Leukopenia
    Low WBC count
  40. Leukemia
    Cancer with uncontrolled production of WBCs
  41. Thrombocytopenia
    Low platelet count
  42. Hemoplilia
    Deficient clotting
  43. Thrombus
    Stationary clot
  44. Embolus
    Moving clot
  45. CVA
    Embolism in the brain
  46. Coronary Thrombus
    Embolism that causes a heart attack
  47. Pulmonary Embolism
    Embolism blocking the pulmonary artery
  48. Heme
    Iron-containing protion of an Hg molecule
  49. Hemoglobin
    12-15 grams/cubic mm

    Pigment of red blood cells responsible for O2 transport
  50. Hematocrit
    35-45% of blood

    Formed elements of blood

    RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
Card Set
A&P Blood
Just the blood