1. Suicide studies
  2. more freedom, men, protestants, wealthy, and unmarried
    Increased suicide
  3. women, catholics, Jews, poor married
    Decreased suicide
  4. 3 stage historical development
  5. beginning of human history to the end of the European Middle Ages; people took a religious view that society expressed God's will
    Theological stage
  6. people saw society as a natural rather than a supernatural system
    Metaphysical state
  7. began with Polish astronomer Copernicus, Galileo, and Isaac Newton
    Scientific stage
  8. championed the cause of the workers in what he saw as their battle against factory owners
  9. racial separation founded NAACP.
  10. framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
    Structural-Functional Approach
  11. a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
    Social-Conflict Approach
  12. a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interaction of individuals
    Symbolic-Interaction Approach
  13. a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
    Participant Observation
  14. a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview.
  15. research method for investigating cause and effects under highly controlled conditions
  16. anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
  17. culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
  18. specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true
  19. norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
  20. attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behaviors
    Social control
  21. study of how monkey reacted to isolation compared to how humans react to isolation
  22. life and death instincts
    at birth
  23. gradually turned to the study of personality and mental disorders and eventually developed the celebrated theory of psychoanalysis.
  24. human's basic drives
  25. conscious efforts balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society; arises as we become aware of our distinct existence
  26. the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual; begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental demands and matures as the child comes to understand that everyone's behavior should take account of cultural norms.
  27. human cognition
  28. level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
    Sensorimotor stage
  29. level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
    Preoperational stage
  30. the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings
    Concrete operational stage
  31. level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
    Formal operational stage
  32. used the phrase looking glass self to mean a self image based on how we think others see us
  33. eight stages of development
    Erik Erikson
  34. Stage 1: Infancy
    trust vs. mistrust
  35. Stage 2: Toddlerhood
    autonomy vs. doubt and shame
  36. Stage 3: Preschool
    initiative vs. guilt
  37. Stage 4: Preadolescence
    industriousness vs. inferiority
  38. Stage 5: Adolescence
    identity vs. confusion
  39. Stage 6: Young adulthood
    intimacy vs isolation
  40. Stage 7: Middle adulthood
    difference vs. self absorption
  41. Stage 8: Old Age
    integrity vs. despair
  42. a social position that a person holds in everyday use, the word status generally means "prestige"
  43. behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
  44. the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.
  45. the study of visual perception
    Ashs's study
  46. four principles: efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and control
    McDonalization of Society
  47. recognized violation of cultural norms
  48. Four essential functions of deviance
    • 1) Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
    • 2) Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
    • 3) Responding to deviance brings people together
    • 4) Deviance encourages social change
  49. a person's tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior
  50. develeped control theory, which states that social control depends on the people anticipating the consequences of their behavior; assumes that everyone finds at least some deviance tempting; links conformity to four different types of social control
  51. marriage between people of the same social category; limits potential partners to people of the same age, race, religion, or social class.
  52. marriage between people of different social categories
  53. marriage that unites two partners
  54. marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
  55. marriage that unites one man and two or more women
  56. marriage that unites one woman and two or more men
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