1. What is a Prime Mover?
    The muscle group directly responsible for the movement of resistance in a given exercise.
  2. Parallel Sagittal Plane
    parallel with midline, divides body laterally
  3. Frontal Plane
    divides body into a front half and a back half (lateral raise, pull down, military press)
  4. Transverse Plane
    divides the body superiorly and inferiorly (rotation at the waist, bench press, internal external rotation)
  5. Sagittal Plane
    along the side of the body (front pulling down a shade, elbow bending forward, close grip bench, squat)
  6. Superior
  7. Inferior
  8. Anterior
    to the front - ventral
  9. Posterior
    to the back - dorsal
  10. Proximal
    toward the trunk (closest to)
  11. Distal
    away from the trunk (furthest from)
  12. Medial
    toward the middle of the body
  13. Lateral
    away from the middle point of the body
  14. Bilateral
    both sides of the body
  15. Unilateral
    one side of the body
  16. Peripheral
    toward the extremities
  17. Superficial
    toward the outer surface
  18. Deep muscles
    towards the inner body
  19. Upper Extremity
    • o Shoulder girdle: scapula, clavical.
    • o Arm: humerus.
    • o Forearm: radius (lateral), ulna (medial).
    • o Wrist: carpals.
    • o Hand: metacarpals, phalanges.
  20. Lower Extremity
    • o Thigh: femur.
    • o Leg: tibia (medial), fibula (lateral).
    • o Foot: calcaneus, talus,
  21. Axial
    • o Skull.
    • o Hyoid.
    • o Vertebral column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar,sacrum, coccyx.
    • o Ribs, sternum.
    • o Pelvis: ilium, ischium, pubis.
  22. Spine Structure and Basic Function
    • *Adult spine has 24 vertebrae
    • o Cervical 7 vertebrae more extension
    • o Thoracic 12 vertebrae more flexion
    • o Lumbar 5 vertebrae more extension
  23. Hip and Pelvis Structure
    • *4 bones make up the pelvic girdle.
    • o Sacrum.
    • o Ilium.
    • o Ischium.
    • o Pubic.
  24. Shoulder Structure
    • o Scapula (shoulder blade).
    • o Humeral head.
    • o Clavicle.
  25. Joint
    a joint is an interaction of bones
  26. “Degrees of Freedom” of a joint
    planes of motion that joints can move along at one time
  27. Types of Joints
    • o Ball and Socket Joints
    • o Hinge Joints
    • o Gliding Joints
  28. Ball and Socket Joints
    (Shoulder, Hip) - the 3 degree joints (move in 3 planes at onetime)
  29. Hinge Joints
    (Elbow, knee) - concave surface moving along the convex surface, 1 degree of freedom (move in 1 plane)
  30. Gliding Joints
    (Wrist, foot) - bones slide past each other, 3 degrees of freedom (move in 3 planes at one time)
  31. Concentric contraction
    • o Muscle contraction as fibers shorten.
    • o Usually active, voluntary.
  32. Eccentric contraction
    • o Muscle contraction as fibers lengthen.
    • o Usually involuntary, in order to protect the joint.
    • o Usually antagonistic - purpose is to decelerate the agonist (usually occurs at the end range ofthe joint).
    • o Strength training more effective when including eccentric actions.
    • o More muscle injuries occur during eccentric phase than concentric phase.
  33. Isotonic contraction
    Muscle contraction with movement around the joint.
  34. Isometric contraction
    Muscle contraction at the same position.
  35. Isokinetic
    • o Muscle contraction at a constant velocity.
    • o Pushing an object that cannot be moved.
  36. Agonists
    Muscle performing a particular action.
  37. Antagonists
    • o Muscles that act in opposition to the movement generated by the agonists.
    • o Responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.
  38. Reciprocal Inhibition
    (forced relaxation) - Antagonists are inhibited from contracting due to tight agonists
  39. Antagonistic Muscle Groups
    • o Pectorals/latissimus dorsi.
    • o Anterior deltoids/posterior deltoids.
    • o Left and right external obliques.
    • o Quadriceps/hamstrings.
    • o Biceps/triceps.
    • o Forearm flexors/extensors.
  40. Synergists
    Smaller muscles providing assistance to the larger working muscle groups.
  41. Stabilizers
    Muscles providing stability in order for the agonist to perform.
  42. Flexion
    bending of a joint that decreases the angle
  43. Extension
    straightening of a joint that increases the angle
  44. Hypoextension
    less extension than normal
  45. Hyperextension
    extension beyond normal limits
  46. Abduction
    away from the body
  47. Adduction
    toward the body
  48. Pronation
    palm turning down
  49. Supination
    palm turning up
  50. Rotation
    around an axis
  51. Circumduction
    circular movement
  52. Protraction
    forward motion, occurs at shoulder joint (abduction)
  53. Retraction
    backward motion, occurs in the shoulder joint (adduction)
  54. Dorsiflexion
    (ankle) pointing foot up towards body
  55. Plantarflexion
    (ankle) pointing foot down
  56. Inversion
    turning feet inward so the soles face each other
  57. Eversion
    turning the soles outward
  58. What % of the body is muscle?
  59. Name 3 types of smooth muscle.
    • Cardiovascular tissue
    • Digestive tissue
    • Respiratory tissue
  60. What is cardiac muscle?
  61. What does a synergistic (secondary muscle) do?
    Assist the “Prime Mover” in any given exercise.
  62. What are 3 of the primary functions of the Skeletal system?
    • Protects vital organs
    • Provides for body’s vertical shape
    • Allows for motion via muscle attachments to bones
    • Builds blood cells
  63. What does a tendon do?
    Attaches muscles to bones
  64. What does a ligament do?
    Attaches bones to bones
  65. Primarily, how does the perimysium and epimysium differ from the endomysium?
    Endomysium surrounds the individual fiber
  66. Left ventrical of the heart muscle adapts to weight training by getting thicker/stronger;while adapting to aerobics by getting....
    Thinner/increased volume
  67. What is a Motor Unit?
    A bundle of like-fibers; Example: bundle of white fast twitch fibers is a “White Fast Twitch Motor Unit”
  68. List how blood flow differs –
    • White fast twitch Least blood flow
    • Red fast twitch Average blood flow
    • Red slow twitch Greater blood flow
  69. How does strength differ –
    • White fast twitch Greatest strength
    • Red fast twitch Moderate strength
    • Red slow twitch Least strength
  70. How does endurance differ –
    • White fast twitch Least endurance
    • Red fast twitch Moderate endurance
    • Red slow twitch Greatest endurance
  71. What rep ranges optimize their effect on –
    • White fast twitch 4-6 rep range
    • Red fast twitch 12-15 rep range
    • Red slow twitch 20-25 rep range
  72. Function of Mitochodria
    Powerhouse of the cell creating ATP energy
  73. Function of Myofibril
    Structural fibers providing for movement and strength
  74. Where can Ribosomes be found & what do they do?
    Rough Sarcoplasmic Reticulum; the “assembly line” that produces actin & myosin in themyofibrils (performs protein synthesis)
  75. What is the order of motor unit recruitment in a high rep set?
    • Red Slow Twitch
    • Red Fast Twitch
    • White Fast Twitch
  76. Is the pump good for size & strength training?
    No; inhibits contractions causing failure prior to optimally damaging myofibrils (required for growth)
  77. What is one example of a hinge joint?
    • 1. Elbow
    • 2. Knee
  78. What is an Eccentric contraction?
    The negative part of the repetition; movement that returns levers to the starting position of the “concentric” exercise
  79. What is an isotonic contraction?
    ANY contraction that results in the movement of a joint
  80. The Sartorius is part of which muscle group?
  81. What does a muscle spindle do?
    Causes a contractile response just short of tearing tissues during stretching that is too extreme.
Card Set
NFPT Personal Training Manual Week 1