Female Reproduction S2M3

  1. Menarche
    First period between ages 9-14
  2. Menopause
    45-55 years old when the menstrual cycle becomes infrequent and eventually stops
  3. What are the regions that make up an ovary
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
    • Germinal epithelium
    • Tunica albuginea
  4. What is the cortex of the ovary made up of
    Ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
  5. What is the medulla of the ovary made up of
    Loose connective tissue with blood vessels and lymphatics
  6. What is the Germinal epithelium of the ovary made up of
    This covers the ovary, is derived from mesothelium, and composed of simple cuboidal cells
  7. What is the location and makeup of the Tunica Albuginea on the ovary
    Made of dense connective tissue beneath the germinal epithelium
  8. Where do the primary oocytes originate
    Wall of the yolk sac
  9. What does the corpus luteum become if not fertilized
    Corpus albicans
  10. At birth, how many oocytes are within the primordial follicles
    600,000 - 800,000
  11. What stage are the primary oocytes in at birth
    Diplotene stage of Meiosis 1
  12. During a female lifetime, how many mature ovas does a female release
  13. Throught life what happens to most of the primary oocytes that were present at birth
    They undergo atresia
  14. What are the three different types of ovarian follicles
    • Primordial
    • Growing (Primary & Secondary)
    • Graafian follicles (mature)
  15. What are the physical characteristics of a Primordial follicle
    • Large nucleus
    • Balbiani body
    • Annulate lamellae
    • Surrounded by follicle cells
  16. Balbiani body
    This is the congregating of ER, Golgi, Lysosomes, and Mitochondria on one side of the nucleus of the primary follicle
  17. Annulate Lamellae
    Found in ooplasm of the primary follicle and resemble profiles of the nuclear envelope
  18. What are the different stages of primary follicles
    • Primordial follicle
    • Unilaminar
    • Multilaminar
  19. What is the physical make up of a Unilaminar primary follicle
    • Contains a primary oocyte and a single layer of simple cuboidal or columnar follicular cells resting on a basal lamina
    • Surrounded by stromal cells (connective tissue)
  20. What is the physical makeup of Multilaminar primary follicle
    • Follicular layer is stratified (granulosa layer)
    • Contains an extracellular coat separating the granulosa layer from the oocyte called a Zona pellucida
  21. Multilaminar Primary oocytes secrete specific proteins that form what
    An extracellular coat of glycoproteins called a Zona pellucida (ZP-1, ZP-2, ZP-3)
  22. What is the role of ZP-3, and where is it found
    Found on the Multilaminar primary follicle and acts as a receptor for sperm binding and inducing acrosome reaction
  23. What is found surrounding the Multilaminar primary follicle just outside the Granulosa cells
    Theca Folliculi (sheet of connective tissue)
  24. What makes up a Primordial follicle
    The oocyte with a single layer of follicular cells surrounding it, and is imbedded in stromal cells
  25. Multilaminar Primary follicular cells are not dependent on
    FSH for growth
  26. What happens to the Balbiani body during oocyte maturation
    Organelles disperse and multiply in numbers
  27. Cortical granules
    Located just beneath the plasma membrane of a developing primary follicle. These release proteolytic enzymes during fertilization
  28. What Follicle is first responsive to Follicle stimulating hormones (FSH)
    Secondary follicle
  29. Granulosa cells contain what receptors
  30. What effect does FSH have on Granulosa cells
    • It increases the number of granulosa cells and inter-cellular spaces
    • Induces granulosa cells to make LH receptors
  31. What are the features of Secondary follicle cells
    • Antrum (spaces between granulosa cells)
    • Granulosa cells
    • Theca interna
    • Theca externa
  32. Theca interna contains what receptors, with what action
    • Contain lots of LH receptors
    • Produce Androgen in response to LH
  33. Theca interna
    • Found in secondary follicles and Graafian follicles
    • Inner layer of cuboidal cells
    • Highly vascularized
  34. Theca externa
    • Outer layer of connective tissue cells on the secondary follicle and Graafian follicle
    • Made mainly of smooth muscle and collagen fibers
  35. Androgen released from the secondary follicles are precursors to
  36. What is the make up of a Graafian follicle
    • Has a single antrum space
    • Cumulus oophorus (attaches oocyte to granulosa cells)
    • Corona radiata (surrounds the oocyte)
    • Granulosa cells (inner wall lining)
    • Theca interna (middle wall lining)
    • Theca externa (outer wall lining)
  37. When does implantation occur
    Around day 20
  38. How does LH effect the Secondary and Graafian stages
    Stimulates theca interna cells to secrete androgen which is then transported to SER in granulosa cells
  39. What happens to Androgen after being transported to granulosa cells
    They catalyze androgen to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase
  40. What are the effects of Estrogen on the other hormones 24 hrs before ovulation
    • Negative feedback on FSH release from Pituitary
    • LH surge (causing negative feedback)
    • Negative feedback of LH causes estrogen to stop being produced by granulosa cells
  41. The LH surge has what effects on the oocyte
    • Resuming meiosis 1
    • Formation of secondary oocyte and 1st polar body
    • Secondary oocyte is arrested in metaphase of meiosis 2
    • Ovulation of secondary oocyte
    • Formation of corpus luteum
  42. When does ovulation of the secondary oocyte occur
    Day 14 of the 28 day cycle
  43. What is the region of the ovary called that is avascular, and is the sight of ovulation
  44. Progesterone levels begin to rise when
    Following ovulation, peaks around day 22, and digresses from there
  45. Corpus luteum is formed how
    • Formed from the remnants of the Graafian follicle that ovulated
    • Left over blood is removed by phagocytes
    • LH change the structure as well
  46. Granulosa lutein cells are
    • Modified granulosa cells in the corpus luteum, changed by presence of LH
    • These make up 80% of the corpus luteum
  47. Theca lutein cells are modified
    Theca interna cells, and make up 20% of the corpus luteum
  48. Granulosa Lutein cells produce
    Mainly progesterone and some estrogens
  49. Theca lutein cells secrete
    Progesterone and some estrogen
  50. What inhibits a second ovulation
    Inhibition of FSH by the secretion of progesterone and estrogen from the corpus luteum
  51. What causes degeneration of the Corpus luteum forming the Corpus luteum of menstruation
    The absence of LH when pregnancy does not occur
  52. What is released when pregnancy occurs
    hCG secreted by syncytiotrophoblasts maintaining the viability of the corpus luteum
  53. Corpus luteum of pregnancy
    Transformation of the corpus luteum via hCG, almost completely encompasses the ovary and continues to produce estrogen and progesterone for 3-4 months
  54. Progesterone inhibits
    • LH
    • "Pro-gressives stop looters"
  55. Estrogen inhibits
    • FSH
    • "Esther stops falling"
  56. Luteinizing hormone has what effect on ovulation
    Induces ovulation and development of corpus luteum
  57. What induces theca interna cells to form LH receptors in secondary follicles
  58. What stimulates primary oocytes to complete meiosis 1
  59. What causes ovulation of the secondary oocyte and formation of the corpus luteum
  60. Graafian follicles produce large amounts of
    Estradiol and inhibin which suppress FSH release from the pituitary
Card Set
Female Reproduction S2M3