Psychology week 2

  1. right and left halves of the cortex
  2. flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal cord
    neural plate
  3. end of the neuron that receives information; it looks like a tree with many branches
  4. any behavior that benefits another person
    prosocial behavior
  5. fatty sheath that wraps around neurons and enables them to transmit information more rapidly
  6. experiencing another person's feelings
  7. relationship in which infants have come to trust and depend on their mothers
    secure attachment
  8. play that begins at about 15 to 18 months; toddlers engage in similar activities as well as talk and smile at each other
    simple social play
  9. behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation
    social referencing
  10. crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties such as feelings
  11. process by which an individual's unique experiences over a lifetime affect brain structures and organization
    experience-dependent growth
  12. perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that the texture of objects changes from coarse and distinct for nearby objects to finer and less distinct for distant objects
    texture gradient
  13. process by which the wiring of the brain is organized by experiences that are common to most humans
    experience-expectant growth
  14. according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge
  15. processes by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses that are the result of physical stimulation
  16. enduring socioemotional relationship between infants and their caregivers
  17. according to Piaget, a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs
  18. glass-covered platform that appears to have a "shallow" and a "deep" side; used to study infants' depth perception
    visual cliff
  19. wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
    cerebral cortex
  20. first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults
    stranger wariness
  21. tubelike structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons
  22. gradual reduction in the number of synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing until early adolescence
    synaptic pruning
  23. relationship in which infants turn away from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief separation
    avoidant attachment
  24. linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole
  25. according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what one already knows
  26. pattern of brain waves recorded from electrodes that are placed on the scalp
    electroencephalogram (EEG)
  27. ability to move around in the world
  28. theory that views motor development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific needs
    dynamic systems theory
  29. brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior
    frontal cortex
  30. children's belief that living things and parts of living things exist for a purpose
    teleological explanations
  31. difficulty in seeing the world from another's point of view; typical of children in the preoperational period
  32. a cue to depth perception based on the fact that parallel lines come together at a single point in the distance
    linear perspective
  33. basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
  34. prosocial behavior such as helping and sharing in which the individual does not benefit directly from his or her behavior
  35. when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is doing
    parallel play
  36. cues to depth perception in which motion is used to estimate depth
    kinetic cues
  37. coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs
    motor skills
  38. infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world, which is elaborated based on experiences
    core knowledge hypothesis
  39. method of studying brain activity by using magnetic fields to track blood flow in the brain
    functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  40. interaction in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other
    constricting actions
  41. infants' sensory systems are attuned to information presented simultaneously to different sensory modes
    intersensory redundancy
  42. according to Piaget, narrowly focused type of thought characteristic of preoperational children
  43. motor skills associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects
    fine motor skills
  44. relationship in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console
    resistant attachment
  45. chemicals released by neurons in order for them to communicate with each other
  46. according to Piaget, a mental structure that organizes information and regulates behavior
  47. specialized neurons in the back of the eye that sense color
  48. infant's understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is; thought to influence close relationships throughout the child's life
    internal working model
  49. according to Erikson, a young child's understanding that he or she can act on the world intentionally; this occurs when autonomy, shame, and doubt are in balance
  50. center of the neuron that keeps the neuron alive
    cell body
  51. way of inferring depth based on differences in the retinal images in the left and right eyes
    retinal disparity
  52. according to Erikson, balance between individual initiative and the willingness to cooperate with others
  53. cues to depth perception that are used to convey depth in drawings and paintings
    pictorial cues
  54. play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins at about 2 years of age
    cooperative play
  55. first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, which lasts from birth to approximately 2 years
    sensorimotor period
  56. thick bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  57. children's belief that all living things have an essence that can't be seen but gives a living thing its identity
  58. understanding, acquired in infancy, that objects exist independently of oneself
    object permanence
  59. smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably
    visual acuity
  60. kinetic cue to depth perception that is based on the fact that an object fills an ever-greater proportion of the retina as it moves closer
    visual expansion
  61. distinguishing and mastering individual motions
  62. relationship in which infants don't seem to understand what's happening when they are separated and later reunited with their mothers
    disorganized (disoriented) attachment
  63. young children who have learned to walk
  64. extent to which brain organization is flexible
  65. smile that infants produce when they see a human face
    social smiles
  66. theoretical view that many human behaviors represent successful adaptations to the environment
    evolutionary psychology
  67. ideas about connections between thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create an intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior
    theory of mind
  68. according to Erikson, an openness to new experience tempered by wariness that occurs when trust and mistrust are in balance
  69. emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements: a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior
    basic emotions
  70. kinetic cue to depth perception based on the fact that nearby moving objects move across our visual field faster than do distant objects
    motion parallax
  71. individuals' actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction
    enabling actions
  72. early, unsteady form of walking done by infants
  73. being small for one's age because of inadequate nutrition
Card Set
Psychology week 2
Early childhood