Chapter 45

  1. Where is the hypothalamus?
    In the brain.
  2. What type of cells does the hypothalamus contain?
    Different sects of neurosecretory cells.
  3. Where are the direct-acting hormones produced by the hypothalamus stored?
    In the posterior petuitary or the neurohypophsis.
  4. What type of hormones does the hypothalamus produce that affects the anterior pituitary?
    Tropic hormones
  5. What tropic affect does the hypothalamus have on the anterior pituitary?
    The hypothalamus controlls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.
  6. What two hormones are released from the posterior pituitary and where do they act?
    Oxytocin and antidiarrhetic hormone (ADH). They act on nonendocrine tissues and are direct acting.
  7. What does oxytocin do?
    It induces uterine contractions and milk production.
  8. What does antidiharretic hormone (ADH) do?
    It enhances water reabsorption in the kidneys.
  9. What are the four tropic hormones the anterior pituitary releases?
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and arenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Also called FSH, it is released by the anterior pituitary and stimulates the production of ova and sperm.
  11. Luteinizing hormone
    Also called LH, it is released by the anterior pituitary and stimulates ovaries and testes.
  12. Thyriod-stimulating hormone
    Also called TSH, it is released by the anterior pituitary and stimulates the thyroid gland.
  13. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    Also called ACTH, it is released by the anterior pituitary and stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.
  14. What are the nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary?
    Prolactin, MSH, and beta endorphins.
  15. What does Prolactin do?
    It stimulates lactation in mammals.
  16. What does MSH do?
    It influences skin pigmentation.
  17. What do beta endorphines do?
    They inhibit the sensation of pain.
  18. This hormone is both tropic and nontropic and is secreted by the anterior pituitary. What is ti and what does it do?
    Growth hormone (GH) promotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects. It stimulates the production of growth factors by other tissues.
  19. In development, do the anterior and posterior pituitary come from the same source?
  20. What three hormones does the thyroid gland produce?
    T3 (Triidothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), and Calcitonin.
  21. What do T3 and T4 do?
    They stimulate metabolism and influence development and maturation.
  22. What does clacitonin do?
    It signals Calcium II to deposit in the bones by stimulating osteoblasts, reduces the ability of he kidney to reabsorb calcium to lower the blood Calcium II levels.
  23. What is hyperthyroidism and hypothyriodism and what are some side effects of these diseases?
    • Hyperthyroidism is the excessive secretion of thyroid hormones and can cause high blood pressure, high temperature, weight loss, and Grave's disease.
    • Hypothyroidism is a deficiency in the secretion of thyroid hormones, and it causes weight gain, lethargy, and cold tolerance.
  24. What hormone does the parathyroid produce and what does it do?
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the osteoclasts in the bone to release Calcium II, enhances the reabsorption of Calcium II in the kidneys, stimulates kidneys to activate Vitamin D, which allows the intestines to absorb Calcium II from food to reise blood Calcium II levels.
  25. Where are the thyrod and parathyroid glands located?
    On the ventral surface of the trachea. The parathyroid is within the thyroid.
  26. By what endocrine organs is the thyroid regulated and by what type of feedback mechanism?
    The hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary regulate it with a negative feedback loop.
  27. What endocrine organ produces insulin and glucagon?
    The pancreas.
  28. Where are the cells that secrete glucagon located?

    The cells are located in the islets of Langerhans.

  29. What cells produce insulin and what cells produce glucagon?
    Beta cells produce insulin. Alpha cells produce glucagon.
  30. What function does insulin have in regulating blood glucose concentrations?
    It stimulates the liver to uptake glucose and store it as glycogen. It also stimulates body cells to take up more glucose. It will actually slow down glycogen breakdown in the liver. If glucose concentrations decrease over time, it will promote fat storage.
  31. What function does glucagon have in maintaining blood glucose?
    Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose to the bloodstream. If glucose concentrations are low over time, it will stimulate the breakdown of fat and protein into glucose.
  32. Explain the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes:
    Type I Diabetes is where the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas (insulin dependent). Type II Diabetes is when there is a deficiency of insulin or nonresponsiveness of the target cells due to a change in the receptors.
  33. What are the two areas of the adrenal gland?
    The medulla and the cortex.
  34. What class of hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?
  35. What hormones does the adrenal medulla produce and what is their function?
    Norepinephrine and epinephrine. They are responsible for "fight or flight" response. They stimulate glygocen breakdown, increase blood pressure, increase breathing rate, increase metabolic rate, and change the blood flow patterns to focus on running away or fighting.
  36. What hormones does the adrenal cortex produce?
    Glucocorbicoids, mineralcorticoids, and sex hormones.
  37. What is the effect of glucocorbidcoids in the adrenal cortex?
    They suppress protions of the immune system and increase glucose concentration.
  38. What is the effect of mineralcorticoids in the adrenal cortex?
    They affect salt and water balance.
  39. What effect do sex hormones have on the adrenal cortex?
    None. We are not sure why they are located here.
  40. What is the maindifference between the hormones produced in the medulla and in the cortex?
    The medulla is for short-term stress and the cortex is for long-term stress.
  41. The testes synthesize what type of hormones?
  42. What is the function of testosterone?
    It increases muscle and bone mass as well as other things.
  43. What are the functions of estrogens (especially estradiol)?

    They are responsible for the maintenence of the female reproductive system and the development of female secondary sex characteristics.

  44. What is the function of progesterone?
    It is primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus.
  45. What is the function of melatonin?
    Related to biological rhythms (internal alarms) and is associated with reproduction and other cycles as well.
  46. What two systems do animals use for internal communication and regulation?

    The nervous system and the endocrine system.
  47. Hormones reach all parts of the body. Do they react in each body part?

    No. They just react where target cells are located.
  48. Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system's hormones cordinate (faster/slower) and create (longer/shorter)lasting reactions?

    Slower but longer reacting.

  49. What are the names of the three hormonal control pathways?
    The simple endocrine pathway, the simple neurohormone pathway, and the simple neuroendocrine pathway.
  50. What three major classes of molecules function as hormones in verebrates?
    Proteins and peptides, amines derived from amino acids, and steriods.
  51. Name something with a positive feedback loop:
    stomach acid, oxytocin.
  52. Where are the receptors for most water-soluble hormones located?
    In the plasma membrane.
  53. True or false: The same hormone will always have the same effect on target cells.
    False- the same hormone connecting to different types of target cells will result in different things.
  54. What happens during paracrine signaling?
    Various types of chemical signals elicit responses in NEARBY target cells.
Card Set
Chapter 45
Biology 109 at UMKC Flash Cards