Phys ch 9

  1. Affective
    Neural Network (emotion)
  2. Cognitive Behaviors
    Neural network (thought)
  3. Plasticity
    The brain exhibits the ability to change connections as a result of experience
  4. 1st animals to develop neurons
    Jellyfish and sea anemones
  5. Neural tube
    The layers of cells around a fluid filled central cavity and develops from
  6. Gray matter
    CNS consists of unmyelinated nerve cell bodies, dentrites and axon terminals
  7. White matter
    Are formed by Myelinated axons of the CNS and run in bundles called tracts
  8. Meningies
    • Where the brain and spinal cord are encased
    • Pia Matter
    • Arachniod Membrane
    • Dura matter
  9. Choroid plexus
    Secretes CSF into the ventricles of the brain.
  10. Blood Brain Barrier
    Tight junctions in brain capillaries prevent possibly harmful substances in the blood from entering in the interstitial fluid
  11. Spinal nerves
    • Each segment of the spinal cord is associated with a pair
    • 8 Cervical
    • 12 thorasic
    • 5 lumbar
  12. Dorsal Root
    Of each spinal nerve carries incoming sensory info
  13. Dorsal root ganglia
    contain the nerve cell bodies of sensory neurons
  14. Ventral roots
    carry info from the CNS to the muscles and glands
  15. Ascending tracts
    White matter that carry sensory information to the brain
  16. Decending tracts
    Carry Efferent signals from the brain.
  17. Six major divisions of the brain
    • Cerebrum
    • diencephalon
    • midbrain
    • cerebellum
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • High demand for O2 gets 15% of total volume
  18. Brain stem
    • Divided into: Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
    • Cranial nerves II to XII originalte here
  19. Medulla Oblongata
    • Contains somatosensory and corticopinal tracts that convey info between the cerebrum and spinal cord
    • Most trats cross the midline in the pyramid region
  20. Pons
    Act as a relay station for info between cerebellum and cerebrum
  21. Midbrain
    Controls eye movment and relays signals for auditory and visual reflexes
  22. Cerebellum
    processes sensory info and coordinates the execution of movement
  23. Diencephalon
    • is composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus
    • Pituitary and pinal gland located here
  24. Thalamus
    Relays and modifies sensory and motor info going to and from the cerebral cortex
  25. Hypothalamus
    contains centers for behavioral drives, Temo regulation, coordination or reproductive hormones, flight or fight responce and growth
  26. Cerebral cortex
    Includes cerebral gray matter, basal ganglia and limic system
  27. Basal Ganglia
    Help controls movement
  28. Limbic system
    • Acts as the link between cognitive functions and emotional responses
    • Includes: Amygdala and cingulated gyrus linked to emotion and memory and the Hippocampus= learning and memory
  29. Three brain systems influence motor output
    Sensory system, cognitive system and behavioral state system
  30. Cerebral laterlization
    Each hemishere of the cerebrum has developed functions that is not shared by the other side
  31. Primary somatic sensory cortex process
    information about touch temp and other somatic senses
  32. Visual cortex auditory cortex gustatory cortex and olfactory cortex
    receive info about vison sound taste and odors
  33. Reticular activating system
    Keeps the brain conscious or aware of self and enviornment
  34. Electroencephalography
    Is able to record electrical activity in the brain
  35. REM
    Rapid eye movement sleep
  36. Slowwave sleep
    Non rem sleep
  37. Sleep apnea
    Sleeping disorder where normal breathing is obstructed
  38. Insomnia
    Sleeping disorder with the inability to sleep or maintain sleep
  39. Motivation
    arises from internal signals that shape voluntary behaviors related to survival or emotions
  40. Moods
    • are long lasting emotional states.
    • Mood disorders can be treated by altering meurotransmittions in the brain
  41. Learning
    is the acquision of knowlage about the world around us
  42. associated learning
    occurs when two stimuli are associated with each other
  43. Non associative learning
    includes imitative behaviors such as learning a language
  44. Habituation
    An animal shows a decreased responce to a stimulus that is reapeated over and over
  45. Sensitization
    exposure to a noxious or intense stimulus creates an enhanced responce on subsequent exposure
  46. Memory
    Multiple levels of storage and is constantly changing
  47. Short term memory
    will disappear unless its consolidated into long term
  48. Long term memory
    • Includes reflexive memory which dosen't require conscious process for its creation
    • In cerebellum
  49. Declarative memory
    • in tempral lobes
    • uses higher cognitive skills for formation and conscious attention for its recall
  50. Wernicke's area
    Motor skills in the back
  51. Broca's Area
    sight in the front
Card Set
Phys ch 9