Music History baroque and Classical

  1. Enlightenment
    • Age of Reason
    • things that are natural
    • questioning the nobles - revolutionary thoughts
  2. Industrial Revolution
    • mid-18th c.
    • economy shifts from hand work to factory work
    • machines take human jobs
    • began in England (London)
    • People move to cities
    • People have more time and more money
    • music for the masses
  3. Music for the Masses
    • Must be crowd-pleasing
    • often for untrained musicians
  4. Style Galant - years, composers
    • 1720-1760
    • Sammartini
    • CPE Bach
    • JC Bach
    • Early Haydn
    • Early Mozart
  5. New genre - 1730's
    • String quartet
    • (at first, 1st violin was the soloist, all others supportive)
  6. New World
    • England needed resources to expand their empire, so they maintained an oppressive presence in the New World.
    • 1776 - Declaration of Independence - led to American Revolution
  7. Napoleon Bonaparte
    Reign of terror - 1790's - spread westward
  8. Enlightenment - effect on music
    • middle class would pay for the arts
    • music and paintings were meant to be pleasing
    • nature is a symbol of the New World vs. smoke and craziness of the city
  9. Pre-Classicism
    • music to please.
    • Homophonic texture - melody and accompaniment (thin texture)
    • major keys
    • short repeated phrases (not sequences)
    • cadential harmonies
  10. Stile Galant - sound
    • Drum bass
    • Melody-dominated homophony
    • subordinated wind parts
    • more consonance
    • layered accompaniment
    • complicated ornamentation
  11. Stile galant - Harmony
    • narrow vocabulary
    • mostly major keys
    • cadential
    • slower harmonic rhythms
  12. Stile Galant - Melody
    • usually single planes
    • more diatonic
  13. stile galant - rhythm
    • usually variegated
    • usually graceful, "feminine"
    • special tendencies:
    • reverse dotting
    • triplets at cadences
    • feminine phrase endings
  14. Stile Galant - Growth, shape, and form
    • short, symmetrical, balanced phrases
    • hierarchical
    • repetition
    • separation of phrases
    • binary opposition of I and V
    • Contrast and recap of themes
    • trend toward standardization (Binary form)
    • states of rhythm differentiated
  15. Stile galant - expressive quality
    shallow, polite
  16. Stile galant - genres
    • solo-bass sonata
    • keyboard sonata (with or w/o accomp.)
    • Keyboard concerto
    • String Quartet & Symphony
  17. Classical Symphony
    • 1730
    • new genre
    • grew out of earlier practices: trio sonatas (chiesa, camera); string quartet; Italian Opera Overture (called sinfonia)
    • for concert hall
    • not standardized
    • called by many other names: partita
    • all looked different, different instrumentation
    • became very popular
  18. Italian Opera Overture
    • Lully - French - Baroque
    • 3 movements: fast slow fast
    • called sinfonia
  19. Empfindsamer Stil
    Sensitive styleover-the-top sappy, sentimentalgoal-listeners weep with gentle tears of melancholyminor keys
  20. Sammartini
    • Italian composer, oboist, organist
    • inspired Gluck, Mozart, Haydn (sort of)
    • early 18th c
  21. Early symphony
    • Sammartini
    • 3 mvts
    • 3-4 string parts
    • early ones have continuo parts
    • 1st movement BINARY FORM
    • triple hammer stroke at beginning (from theater)
  22. binary form
    • important structure in suites, etc.
    • 2 part
    • I ---- V/II ------I
    • Key sigs. hold it together
    • based on tonality
    • B section - tends in tonic
  23. Rounded binary form
    • A
    • I/i ---- V/III ------ a
    • grows into sonata form
  24. Sonata form
    • I - expo - V Devel I recap
    • Sammartini Symphony in D major
    • Triple Hammer Stroke starts this symphony
  25. Mannheim Orchestra
    • army of Generals/Pros.
    • Mannheim, Gernany near the Rhein
    • known for their precision
    • perfect attention to dynamics and nuances
    • pro wind players from Bohemia
    • including clarinet players (influenced Mozart)
    • Created by Stamitz
  26. Stamitz
    • Created Mannheim Orchestra
    • mid 18th c
  27. Mannheim Crescendo
    • invented in Italian Opera Overture
    • but used so much here that it got the name
  28. Mannheim Rocket
    Rapidly ascending arpeggio to begin a piece
  29. Mannheim Roller
    rising melodic line over a pedal tone
  30. Symphony - 1740-1770
    • Closer to modern orchestra - 30 - 35 players
    • no viola da gamba, or lute, no more renaissance
    • percussion = timpani
    • one fl/ob per part
    • clarinet not till 1770's
    • conductor = harpsichordist
  31. Sturm und drang - characteristics
    • Haydn - 1760's - 1770's
    • ex. Symphony no. 49 (f minor)
    • Minor keys
    • syncopated rhythms
    • tense harmonies
    • dissonances
    • wide melodic leaps
    • huge dynamic contrasts
    • heavy accents
    • contrapuntal textures
    • extended modulations
    • mood=unsettled
  32. Sturm und drang definition
    literary and articstic phenomenon that influenced music.
  33. Anti-Enlightenment
    • b/c anti-reason
    • seeds of Romanticism
    • mix with Empfindsamer Stil
    • unsettling dark emotions
    • huge melodic leaps
    • syncopation
    • unsettled mood
    • sigh motives
    • dissonances/chromaticism
  34. Traditional classical symphony
    • Mvt. I - sonata form
    • II - slow, form can vary: (theme and Vts, ternary, sonata, rondo)
    • III - Minuet and Trio (ternary form)
    • IV (in I) fast movement - sonata, t&v, or rondo
  35. Minuet and Trio form
    • compound ternary form
    • AB AB AB
    • A B A
  36. Sonata form
    • based on tonal harmony
    • outgrowth of Baroque binary structure
  37. Sonata Rondo Form
    • I V I Dev. I I I
    • like ABACAAA
  38. Lorenzo da Ponte
    librettist for Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosi von Tutti
  39. Metastasio
    • Most successful/famous libretist of all time
    • 27 opera seria librettos set over 300 times
    • followed the rules of opera seria
    • drama, dignity, realism, romance
    • produced highly settable texts, elegant and simple
  40. Aria di bravura
    • Opera seria:
    • rapid tempo
    • fast rhythms
    • long, difficult melismas
    • possibly wide leaps
    • suitable for extreme emotional expression
    • Rejoice Greatly
  41. Aria cantabile
    • Opera seria
    • moderate to slow tempo
    • major key
    • mostly conjunct melodic motion
    • usually narrow range
    • balanced and stable phrases
    • slow harmonic rhythm
    • moderately ornamented and melismatic
    • mostly consonant
    • little contrast
    • often uses appoggiaturas
    • love, peace, contentment, etc
    • He Shall Feed His Flock
  42. Aria Patetica
    • Opera seria:
    • slow tempo, minor key, soft dynamics, chromaticism, dissonance, descending melodic and bass contours, low register, sorrow, lamentation, etc. Dido's Lament
  43. Aria Parlante
    • Opera seria:
    • Syllabic text setting, rapid tempo, many exclamations and other words set off by rests and repeated pitches; suitable for expressions of anger, defiance, and related affections
    • ex: "Patter arias"
  44. Aria di mezzo catattere
    • Opera Seria:
    • a mixture/alternation of features of the other types; suitable for setting words that are not strongly affective
  45. Opera Seria (conventions)
    • Italian opera
    • 18th and 19th c.
    • tragic or heroic subject
    • reform from earlier models
    • interst in classical Greek drama
    • Orderly, simplistic, naturalness, dignity, instructional
    • no more than 30 arias; expanded recitative
    • 1 ensemble per opera (usu. a duet for the principal couple)
    • arias in the same style could not follow one another
  46. Opera Seria - typical outline of acts
    • Act I: introduce the conflict, # of characters increase as the act progresses. Sometimes the scene changes, the number of characters on stage decreases, leaving a single performer for a monologue at the end
    • Act II: A public scene, perhaps some spectacle
    • Act III: Resolution of the conflict. All are onstage for the happy ending
  47. Classical Greek Drama / Opera Seria
    • single central argument
    • Max. 8 characters
    • stage never empty except btw acts
    • action ideally takes place within a 24 hour period, and in locations of close proximity
    • Death is handled tastefully - suicide and battle OK if off stage, NO murder
    • Ancient history preferable to mythology - trips to the underworld were banished
    • Ballet and coarse unseemly behavior of comic scenes relegated to entr'acts unrelated to the serious drama.
  48. Cleofide
    • Hasse - composer
    • early17th c.
    • opera seria
    • Metastasio, librettist
  49. Intermezzi
    short one-act performances between acts of opera seria; later developed into "comic opera"
  50. Comic Opera
    • Everyday people; everyday problems
    • developed from intermezzi
    • 1730's
  51. La Serva Padrona
    • Pergolesi - early 18th c.
    • written btw acts of his own opera seria
    • performed often
    • attention in Paris, sparked the War of the Buffoons
    • everyday people: Uberto: man of house
    • Seripina - servant
  52. War of the Buffoons
    • Propaganda war in Paris in mid 18th c.
    • Fr music vs It. music
    • pamphlets
    • style battle
  53. characteristics of La Serva Padrona aria
    • more classical sound
    • syllabic singing
    • no castrati
    • comic bass
    • slower harmonic rhythm
    • repitition for the sake of comedy
    • sudden accents for comedy
    • fast, light tempi
    • different moods in a piece
    • less rigidly structural
  54. Style battle in War of the Buffoons
    • Fr: dance, melodies, plot, they hate castrati, Remeau: qdrama, harmony is important
    • It: singers, melismatic, all about castrati, russeau - lyricism, melody is important
  55. Reform Opera
    • Gluck - ex
    • attempt to combine French drama with Italian lyricism
    • no da capo arias
    • simple, natural arias
    • no useless ornaments
    • animated figures
    • no boring instrumental prelude
    • no waiting for cadenza
    • no holding out of a favorite vowel
  56. Gluck
    • 45 operas
    • reform opera
    • Pletastasio - librettist for 17 operas.
    • Ranieri Calzibigi - librettist for his reform operas
    • 1st few operas were just like Handel
    • Studied with Sammartini
    • aware of opera seria (Handel)
  57. Tragedie Lyrique
    • French opera seria + ballet
    • Count Durazzio
  58. Orfeo ed Euridice
    • Gluck, mid-18th c.
    • Calzibigi style
    • all simplified
    • no more than 2 characters per number
    • aria: Orfeo's lament
  59. Elements of Reform Opera
    • completely orchestrated recitative, so more linear sound, more streamlined
    • music never interrupts plot; plot keeps moving
    • no dance for sake of dance, (Orfeo: dance is dance of the Furies)
    • orchestral overture, sets mood for opera to come
    • (opera seria overtures could previously be switched if needed)
    • Role of soloist is decreased (no liberties to change music, no da capo, no melismas, no cadenzas, no instrumental ritornello)
    • STROPHIC arias instead of da capo (simplified, almost folk-like)
    • libretto had heartfelt language, strong passions, interesting situations
  60. Mozart Opera
    • wrote in Vienna
    • 22 operas
  61. Opera Buffa - stock characters
    • lord of manor - questionable repute
    • high minded people of questionable morality
    • hot young babe
    • young hero (baritone or basso buffo) (clever servant)
    • meddling doctor with troublemaker wife
  62. Trouser role
    • opera buffa
    • boy played by a woman
    • ex: cherubino in Figaro
  63. Mozart's Italian comic operas
    • 7
    • ex: Marriage of Figaro 1786
    • Don Giovanni 1787
    • Cosi von Tutti 1790
  64. Lorenzo da Ponte
    librettist for Mozart's Italian comic operas
  65. Mozart's German comic operas
    • ex. Magic Flute
    • Abduction from Seraglio (Turkish theme/exoticism)
  66. Singspiel
    • in language of the people
    • genre of opera - German comic opera
    • "sung play"
    • fantasy elements: supernatural, magic, exoticism
    • Die Zauberflote (Magic Flute)
  67. Terzetto
    Trio in Figaro: "Cosa sento" - the Count demands an explanation from Basilio's accusation of Cherubino's love for the Countess
  68. Opera Buffa
    • mid-18th c. rise in popularity
    • late 18th - in prime
    • Vienna - center of reform opera
    • almost no opera seria here
    • mostly upper class audience
  69. Magic Flute
    Queen of the night - opera seria style but in Singspiel
  70. Ballad Opera
    • "Beggars Opera" by Gay
    • English version of comic opera
    • includes spoken dialogue
    • Not high art
    • pub songs with new words
  71. John Gay
    composed Beggar's Opera
  72. Broadside Ballads
    • English pop ballad
    • 16th c. - 18th c.
    • one tune for many poems - oral tradition
    • music was printed on long sheets called broadsides
    • Eventually replaced by a single sheet song that had flute or another accompanying instrument
  73. Thomas D'urfey
    collected broadside ballads and published an anthology called "Pills to Purge Melancholy"
  74. Opera comique
    French comic opera. Spoken dialogue, not recitative
  75. Dramma giocoso
    • late 18th c.
    • comic opera - term to describe characters from serious opera appearing next to stock comic opera characters x. Don Giovanni is described on the libretto as a dramma giocoso and on the score as an opera buffa
  76. Patter song
    short phrases, simple harmonies, lots of words. Ex. "I am the very model of a modern major general..."
  77. Ensemble
    • group of main characters singing together
    • though singing, they can still maintain their individual personalities. Common in comic opera. Compare to chorus - a mass of people
  78. Chorus
    Mass of people acting as a being with a common mind. No main characters; act as a group
  79. Emanuel Schikaneder
    a writer of plays and librettist of singspiels such as Mozart's Magic Flute. also he played Papageno in the first M. F. performance. Theater an der Wien, Vienna - built it.
  80. Augmented sixth chords
    • Italian - tonic, +6, repeats tonic
    • French, has 2
    • German has 3 and sounds like a dom. chord
  81. Castrati
    men who were castrated to keep their voices high
  82. da capo aria
    the aria type that is used in opera seria. the form is ABA+, where the repetition of A is ornamented. In this aria type, there is only one emotion per aria. there are different types: Bravura, cantabile, and parlante ex. Piangero la sorte mia
  83. Recitative accompagnato
    accompanied recitative - more than just the harpsichord accompanies the singer during the singing of the recit. imitation of impassioned speech with multiple instrument accompaniment. Tells the plot
  84. Recitative secco
    dry recit with just singer and harpsichord
  85. String quartet
    • no precurser
    • used to be for the home/amateur
    • starts w/ 2 violin, viola, and cello, no bass
    • violin used to be dominant voice
    • sometimes publishers added wind parts
    • intimate, subtle, tasteful ornamentation
    • refined genre sometimes a fugue was added to show off
    • the term was coined in the late 18th c.
  86. Haydn - Op. 9 (1770)
    • 4 movement string quartet
    • this standardizes the form
  87. Accompanied Keyboard music
    • 18th c. chamber music
    • kybd written out
    • accomp. instr's optional
    • ancestor to piano trio
    • pop. in mid century
    • not related to baroque solo sonata
  88. cross relation
    • two chromatic notes with the same letter name occurring on a chord to create dissonance
    • Mozart's Dissonance Quartet in C Major (string quartet)
  89. L'Homme Arme
    • "the armed man" - popular tune from Burgundian conflict with Turks
    • the most popular tune for Ordinary of mass, especially in Burgundy
    • mid-15th c. Dufay = cantus firmus mass: Missa L'Homme Arme
  90. PACSOG
    • Baroque dance suite - acronym
    • Passacaglia
    • Allemande
    • Courant
    • Sarabande
    • Ordre
    • Gigue
  91. French overture
    • Slow intro with lots of dotted rhythms
    • fugal second section
    • Lully - mid-17th
    • musical intro to opera or ballet
  92. Agrements
  93. notes inegales
    • rhythmic passage - notes alternate long/short, even if written as equal duration.
    • mid-16th - late 18th c. French convention of enlivening passage work
    • Bourgeois - first to explain it as an embellishment of diminutions
  94. scordatura
    • alternate tuning for string instruments
    • early 16th c
    • popular btw 1600-1750
  95. fortspinnung
    • "spinning out" musical material (usu. melodic line)
    • short idea or motif is developed into a phrase or period using sequences, intervallic transformation, or repetition
    • Bach - Partita in E.
  96. 24 voilons du Roi
    • Louis XIII
    • The King's 24 violins
    • 1626
    • part of Musique de la Chambre
    • performed at courtly events and festivities
  97. Gesamtkunstwerk
    "total work of art" Wagner
  98. Harriet Smithson
    wife of Berlioz; inspired Symphony Fantastique
  99. Davidsbundlertanze.
    18 pieces for solo piano by Schumann, includes the characters Florestan and Eusebius, who represent the two sides of Schumann's personality. Early 19th c.
  100. Heinrich Heine
    German poet - lieder by Schumann and Schubert
  101. Goethe
    Mozart, Beethoven, schubert, Berlioz, Wolf
  102. Sound mass
    • Threnedy to the Victims of Hiroshima
    • Penderecki, mid-20th
  103. Music concrete
    Steve Reich - music from environmental sounds
  104. Graphic notation
    Crumb - 20th c.
  105. minimalism
    U.S. 1960's - repetition, gradualchange, minimal of basic materials - John Cage - 4 min's 33 sec's
  106. Darmstadt
    Boulez - International summer courses for new music was founded - established composers like Messaien mentored composers such as boulez. Proponents of serialism. mid-20th c
  107. Total serialism
    every aspect of the composition was mathematically organized: meter, dynamics, pitch, rhythm - Milton Babbitt
  108. chance music
    music produced by chance - John Cage
  109. aleatoric music
    Boulez - the performer is given liberty to improvise within certain parameters set by the composer. mid-20th c.
  110. Tin pan alley
    NYC composers and publishers at the turn of the 19th and 20th c. who were in the popular music scene - jazz, swing.
  111. indeterminacy
    chance music with Charles Ives; mid-20th c.
  112. Song-plugger
    piano player in music stores who played and promote new sheet music - Gershwin was a song plugger. early 20th c.
  113. nadia boulanger
    composer with the paris conservatory - many of her students came to America: Copland, Glass. mid-20th c. First major female conductor - America and Europe
  114. Union of composersq
    Soviet government's attempt to control the arts in the early 20th c.
  115. spreschstimme
    • Schoenburg - Pierre Lunaire early 20th c.
    • Berg - Wozzeck
  116. 2nd Viennese School
    Schoenberg, Berg, Webern
  117. expressionisn
    • 20th c. music and art irrational states of mind, grotesque action - 2nd Viennese school
    • Schoenberg - 2nd String Quartet
  118. primitivism
    Rite of Spring
  119. Neoclassicism
    • Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Ravel
    • order, balance, clarity, emotional restraint
    • 20th c.
  120. "Mighty Five" composers
    • Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Borodin
    • late 19th c.
  121. Paris Exhibition of 1889
    Debussy is exposed to Indonesian gamelon music which became an influence on his music
  122. Symphonic poem
    one movement programmatic orchestral piece; can be part of a cycle, such as Ma Vlast: The Moldau - Smetena late 19th c.
  123. New German School
    Liszt, Wagner -
  124. Wunderhorn
    German poetry set to music by Brahms, Schumann among others
  125. Société Nationale de Musique
    • Saint Saens and Bussine, founders - promote young French composers such as Frank, Faure, Dubois, etc.
    • late 19th c.
  126. Cecilian Movement
    seeking to revive chant Tebaldini and Perosi 19th c.
  127. Joseph Joachim
    violinist, conductor, composer, contemproray of Brahms - one of the most significant violinists of the 19th c.
  128. risorgimento
    end of napoleonic rule: Italian unification 1815
  129. mad king louie
    patron of Wagner. Very eccentric
Card Set
Music History baroque and Classical
terms for classical and baroque period - music history