shosh: random bacteriology

  1. Cause of acne
  2. Type of hypersensitivity induced by mycobacterial cell wall
    Type IV
  3. Cord factor
    Antigen that correlates with virulence in mycobacteria. Inhibits leukocyte migration and stimulates granuloma formation.
  4. Location of primary TB infection
    Adjacent to pleura, in lower part of upper lobe, or upper part of lower lobe
  5. Location of secondary TB infection
    Lung apex
  6. Two stains that identify M. tuberculosis
    • Ziehl-Neelsen
    • Kinyoun
  7. Vitamin produced by M. tuberculosis
  8. First line drugs for TB
    • Isoniazid (use for prophylaxis)
    • Rifampin
    • Ethambutol
    • Pyrazinamide
  9. Positive PPD test with no BCG vaccination and no M. TB infection
    M. bovis infection
  10. Swimming pool granuloma
    Mycobacterium marinum
  11. Prophylaxis against MAC in AIDS patients
  12. Aerobic, gram positive organism, partially acid fast
    Nocardia (chronic lobar pneumonia and granuloma formation in immunocompromised patients)
  13. Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever--fever, malaise, with maculopapular rash that begins peripherally and spreads to trunk
    • Rash involves soles and palms
    • May cause DIC
  14. Three causes of rash involving palms and soles
    • Rocky mountian spotted fever
    • Meningococcemia
    • Secondary syphilis
  15. Coxiella Burnetti
    • Q fever--Fever, chills, headache, malaise
    • NO RASH
    • Chronic Q fever can cause myocarditis or hepatitis
    • Negative Weil-Felix test
  16. Bartonella henselae
    Cat scratch disease
  17. Weil-Felix test
    • Used to detect rickettsia infection (but does not work for coxiella burnetti, Q fever)
    • Based on agglutination between anti-rickettsial antibodies and the proteus polysaccharide AG
  18. Obligate intracellular parasite that has a gram negative envelope but lacks muramic acid, and infects as an elementary body
  19. Histology of cells infected with C. trachomatis
    Vacuolar inclusions in cytoplasm that contain glycogen, and stain with iodine
  20. Leading cause of bacterial STDs in US
  21. Chlamydia psittaci
    • Causes atypical pneumonia
    • Transmitted in bird droppings
  22. 4 stages of syphilis infection
    • Primary--painless chancre
    • Secondary--spirochete disseminates into bloodstream, causing rash, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Condyloma lata may appear
    • Latent
    • Tertiary--has three manifestations: gummata, cardio, or neuro
  23. Two serological tests for syphilis
    • VDRL--non-specific, false positives in SLE patients, take 1-4 weeks to turn positive
    • FTA--specific, used for confirmation
  24. Fever, headache, and myalgia, following penicillin G administration in px with syphilis
    Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, caused by release of endotoxin when spirochetes lyse. Self-limiting, don't treat. DON'T stop penicillin.
  25. Red macule with erythematous ring and central clearing
    Erythema chronicum migrans, indicates borrelia infection
  26. Confirmation of lyme disease diagnosis
    ELISA assay of antibodies, followed by Western blot for confirmation (borrelia is hard to culture)
  27. Organism with no cell wall and sterols in cell membrane
  28. Most common cause of pneumonia in young adults
    Mycoplasma pneumonia (may also cause non-purulent otitis media)
  29. Postive cold agglutination test
    Mycoplasma pneumonia
  30. Treatment for mycoplasma pneumonia
    Erythromycin or azithromycin (pencillin won't work, because bacteria have no cell walls)
  31. Mycoplasma hominis
    • Causes postpartum infection
    • Treat with tetracycline, because unlike most mycoplasm, hominis is resistant to macrolides
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shosh: random bacteriology