1. What are the components (or classes of reactions) of metabolism?
    Catabolism - (energy harvest) - breaking things down

    Anabolism - energy usage
  2. What is the importance of ATP in metabolism? Of enzymes?
    ATP turns into ADP which is the energy used in metabolism. Enzymes break down ATP into ADP for energy.
  3. What are the central pathways of metabolism?
    Respiration, Fermentation, & Glycolysis
  4. How does the energy and carbon balance out if a cell goes through glycolysis?
    • Starts with 6 carbon sugars and ends with 2 3-carbon sugars
    • Start with 1 glucose and end with 2 pyruvic acid molecules and 2 ATP and 2 NADH
  5. How does the energy and carbon balance out if a cell goes through respiration?
  6. What is the relationship between glycolysis and fermentation?
    Fermentation is to recycle NADH to NAD+ which is needed in glycolysis
  7. What is the Central Dogma of Biology?
    Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein
  8. How is genetic information stored and turned into cellular structures?
    genetic information is stored in DNA which then gets replicated into RNA and then transcribed into protein which we can see
  9. What occurs during Replication, Transcription, and Translation?
    Replication occurs in the nucleus by mitosis or meiosis. Transcription occurs in the nucleus where RNA is made to complement one strand of DNA. Ribosomes do translation in the cytoplasm making the proteins we need for daily things
  10. What distinguishes genotype from phenotype?
    • Genotype - Genes
    • Phenotype - What you look like
  11. How does genetic transfer in prokaryotes occur?
    Horizontal Gene Transfer. Conjugation, Transduction, Transformation
  12. In what ways are Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation similar?
    They are all horizontal gene transfers, all homologous recombination
  13. In what ways are Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation different?
    • Transformation - picks up DNA from environment.
    • Transduction - lysogenic (specialized), lytic (generalized) and occurs via a virus
    • Conjugation - uses the f plasmid
  14. What are plasmids, and how do they differ from chromosomes?
    • Plasmids carry nonessential genes but are useful for getting rid of diseases.
    • Chromosomes carry essential genes.
  15. What is the significance for human disease of plasmids, transposons and lysogenic viruses?
  16. What is the purpose or function of taxonomy?
  17. How does classification help the clinical microbiologist?
  18. What are some methods or strategies by which we classify or identify microorganisms?
  19. What are some specific methods used to classify/identify microbes based on phenotype?
  20. What are the terms given to describe prokaryotic cell morphology? To describe prokaryotic cell arrangement? Do these terms apply to eukaryotes and viruses as well?
  21. How do we classify/identify microbes based on genotype?
  22. What are the characteristics used to separate bacteria into their larger groups?
  23. What characteristics is used to further divide the Gram positives?
  24. What designations are used to subdivide the Gram negatives?
  25. What are some examples of Gram positive organisms? Of Gram negative organisms?
  26. What are the general characteristics of eukaryotes that make them different than prokaryotes?
  27. How do the characteristics used to classify eukaryote differ from those used to classify prokaryotes? How are they similar?
  28. How does reproduction (and thus genetic diversity) differ in eukaryotes as compared to prokaryotes?
  29. What are the distinctive characteristics of protozoa?
  30. How do we classify protozoa?
  31. How do protozoa compare with fungi? With bacteria?
  32. What are protozoa nutritional needs?
  33. What are protozoa distinguishing characteristics?
  34. How are protozoa classified?
  35. How do protozoa reproduce?
  36. What are the distinctive characteristics of fungi?
  37. How do we classify fungi taxonomically? How do we classify (identify) them in the clinical lab?
  38. How do fungi differ from bacteria? How are they similar?
  39. What are fungi nutritional needs?
  40. How do fungi reproduce? What are the different spore types?
  41. What classes/types of worms are associated with infectious disease?
  42. What are worms characteristics?
  43. Are the worms themselves the pathogen, or do they act as vectors?
  44. How are they identified in the clinical laboratory?
  45. What are arthropods and what characterizes them?
  46. In what ways do arthropods spread infectious agents?
  47. How do arthropods act as vectors and what types of vectors are there?
  48. What are the various arthropods that act as vectors?
Card Set
Microbiology Review Midterm